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writing summary essay American University Washington

The typist needs to understand what is to be typed and should plan the copy for the specific purpose it is to serve. Descriptive words for essay writing The Perkiomen School. When typing formal manuscripts or technical reports, it is important that the typist should refer to manuals of goods style prepared by authorities in defining critical thinking st. clair college this matter (Turabian and Campbell, 1967 and 1954). Reference manuals for stenographers and typist or standard handbook for secretaries will also be of great help. The typist should follow the standard rules and suggestions in these manuals for uniformity of writing summary essay American University Washington, spacing, margins, pagination, footnoting, etc. Footnoting. Explanatory notations at the bottom of the page used to cite an authority, to make incidental comments, to make cross-reference, or to make acknowledgements are called footnotes, (Turabian, 1967). These footnotes are indicated by typing a superior (raised) figure immediately following the materials for which a reference is critical judgments monkton combe school, given. Turabian explains that these figures should be “elevated slightly above the line (but never a full space above it), and set after punctuations, if any. this can be done by writing summary essay American University Washington, rolling the descriptive words for essay writing the perkiomen school cylinder toward you a half space and holding it in position as the superior figure is typed or use the selling by the computer system to write the footnote. writing summary essay American University Washington. Footnotes are separated from the last line of writing summary essay American University Washington, manuscript as follows. Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes After typing the critical judgments monkton combe school last manuscript line, single space and, with the writing summary essay American University Washington underline key type a 1 ? inch line from the left margin. Double space, indent the left margin to paragraph point, type the appropriate superscript, and writing summary essay American University Washington then, without spacing type the footnote single spaced. Double space between footnotes. Footnotes in a manuscript numbered consecutively, either for each chapter or continuously throughout the manuscript and are identical with the reference numbers. (Campbell, 1954). Footnotes and Endnotes are used to give credit to source of any materials borrowed. summarized or paraphrased. Critical judgments Monkton Combe School. They are intended to writing summary essay American University Washington refer readers to the critical judgments monkton combe school exact pages of the works listed in the essay writing layout glenalmond college Works Cited, References, or Bibliography section. The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is that Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made; while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitles Endnotes or Notes. If you are still using a typewriter, a superscript number is typed half a space above the line after the last word of the citation, e. g. , “The Information Superhighway is giving way to a Commercial Superhighway. writing summary essay American University Washington. “1 If you are using a word processor, you can access the superscript function. To type a Footnote citation, the writing summary essay American University Washington same superscript number is put at the beginning of article search engine cardiff sixth form college, the Footnote at the bottom of the same page where the citation occurs. When monitoring a work for the first time, a full and complete Footnote or Endnote entry must be made. NOTE: Only one sentence is used a Footnote or Endnote citation, i. e. , only one period or full stop is used at the end of any Footnotes or Endnote citation. In a Bibliography, each citation consists of a minimum of three statements or sentence, hence each entry requires a Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes inimum of writing summary essay American University Washington, three periods, e. g. , a period after the author statement, a period the title statement, and a period after the publication statement (publication/publisher/publication date). If you indent your paragraphs, the entire essay is typed double-spaced. Title of essay centered, 1” (2. 5 cm) margin on all four sides, page number at upper right hand corner ? ” (1. 25 cm) down from the top. If your instructor prefers that you do not indent your paragraphs, you must still double-space your lines, but you will need to quadruple-space between paragraphs. Endnotes must be listed numerically and consecutively, both in your essay and in your Endnote citation. Endnote numbers must be superscripted. Article search engine Cardiff Sixth Form College. In your text, add a superscripted number immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space. Endnotes. Endnotes must be added on a separate Endnotes or Notes page at the end of your essay just before the Works Cited or Bibliography page. All first Endnote references must be cited in writing summary essay American University Washington full. Article search engine Cardiff Sixth Form College. Subsequent references of the same work may be shorted to include only the author’s last name and defining critical thinking st. clair college page number. If the source cited has no author stated, use whatever minimal information is needed to identify the same work previously cited, e. g. , short title and page number. Formerly, the writing summary essay American University Washington Latin terms ibid. and op. cit. Writing the perfect college admission essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas). were used but they are no longer preferred. It is recommended that you use Endnote in writing summary essay American University Washington place of Footnotes. This will eliminate the need to allow sufficient space to accommodate all the required Footnote entries at the bottom of the same page where your citations occur. If your instructor has no preference, use the much simpler Parenthetical Documentation in place of Footnotes or Endnotes. Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes Spacing. The standard rule for typing the main body of a manuscript or report is double spacing unless there is an critical judgments monkton combe school, special reason for single spacing it. Triple spacing is used before and after the main heading while side headings (blocked and capitals are preceded by a triple space (2 blank lines) and followed by a double space (1 blank line). Descriptive words for essay writing The Perkiomen School. Single spacing is used for listings, enumerations, long quotations, footnotes, and writing summary essay American University Washington other displays. Direct quotation of not more than three typewritten lines in length is run into the text and typed double spaced. A long direct quotation is typed single spaced. writing summary essay American University Washington. (Row, 1963) explain it this way: A quotation of three or fewer lines of typing is displayed simply for being typed within quotation marks, but a longer quotation is given special display. It is single spaced and indented five spaces from regular margins on both sides. Margins. writing summary essay American University Washington. Unbounded manuscripts whose pages are not going to be fastened (like reports or articles for publication) are usually typed with at least one-inch on all sides. Essay writing layout Glenalmond College. On the writing summary essay American University Washington first page, however, an extra inch at the top is provided so that the top margin falls two inches deep. With top-bound pages, the top margin on all pages, except the first, is writing summary essay American University Washington, increased by one-half inch. With a side binding, the left margin is increased by one-half inch on all pages. Thus, on a side-bounded page the center of typed line moves to the right of actual center one-half the number of spaces left for the binding. Pagination. Every page in a manuscript is assigned a number although not indicated on every page. Descriptive words for essay writing The Perkiomen School. For example, the first page, (where the title appears or the beginning of a chapter) no page figure is typed but a number is allowed for that page. The page number is usually typed one-half. Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endnotes or one inch form the top edge, aligned with the article search engine cardiff sixth form college right margin and opposite the running head, if there is no running head, the critical judgments monkton combe school page number is usually placed at writing the perfect college admission essay university of hertfordshire (navitas), the center of the page. Writing the perfect college admission essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas). Top-bound manuscript is usually placed at the center of the page. Top-bound manuscript is writing summary essay American University Washington, usually numbered at writing the perfect college admission essay university of hertfordshire (navitas), the center, one or one-half inch at the bottom of the page. Typing Aids. In typing manuscripts with footnotes, special care should be exercised so that all the footnotes corresponding to the references that appear on the page are accommodated on the same page. This can be facilitated with the use of article search engine cardiff sixth form college, typing aids. Some typists make a light pencil mark about an inch from the bottom of the page before they begin to type (Beamer, Marshall Hanne and writing the perfect college admission essay university of hertfordshire (navitas) Popham, 1962). This warning line indicates to the typist that he should stop typing on that page to allow for an adequate bottom margin. If a footnote must be placed on the page, the pencil mark can easily be raised three or four lines to indicate the point where the footnotes begins. The typist must remember to erase these marks after he removes the sheet of paper or carbon pack from the typewriter. Another typing aid is the use of a special guide sheet (Turabian). writing summary essay American University Washington. This may be made of an onion skin or a very thin type of paper and placed between the original copy and first sheet of carbon paper. It is cut the same length as the typing paper but extending one-half inch to the right where the numbers to indicate the line of writing are typed. It may be typed in either black or red latters. (Lessenberry, 1965) , the “page-end indicator” – an enumerated backing sheet that is placed back of and extending slightly to the right of writing summary essay American University Washington, a full sheet (or carbon pack) to indicate at any time the page line being typed (Ibid). Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and Endontes A simple and practical backing-sheet guide may be made as follows: 1. writing summary essay American University Washington. At the essay writing layout glenalmond college top right edge of a whole sheet, count numbers 1 to 13, downward. Mark every half inch. These marks will serve as a guide for determining the starting point for writing summary essay American University Washington, the page margins of the manuscripts being typed. 2. One inch from the bottom of the page, type “STOP”— a warning to insure a bottom margin of at least one inch. From this point, type lines 1 to 15 upward. This will indicate the number of writing lines available for typing the footnotes corresponding to reference on that page. Abbreviations used in article search engine cardiff sixth form college Footnotes. writing summary essay American University Washington. Some footnotes are abbreviated to avoid typing several times a reference already used. For example, if a reference is the same as the ones immediately preceding, the defining critical thinking st. clair college abbreviation, (in the same place) is used, with the volume and page reference if they are different (Stuart, 1948) Further explanation of this term by Lessenberry and Wanous is quoted as follows: When two footnotes contain reference to the same work and one follows the other without any intervening footnote, use Ibid. the abbreviation for Ibidem (in the same place) (Lessenberry and Wanous) and the exact page number for the second footnote. When a footnote refers to the same work previously cited but of a different page and the intervention of one or two footnotes, use the author’s name and the notation op, cit… (the abbreviation from the Latin opere citato meaning in the work cited) plus the writing the perfect college admission essay university of hertfordshire (navitas) page number. The name of the publication and other identifying date need not be repeated (Loc. Cit) When a footnote refers exactly to the writing summary essay American University Washington same matter covered by a reference previously cited and writing summary essay American University Washington the footnotes are in consecutive order on the writing summary essay American University Washington same page, or the footnotes are consecutive but Typing Manuscripts with Footnotes and writing summary essay American University Washington Endnotes n different pages, use loc, cit. (the abbreviation for loco citato, meaning “in the essay writing layout glenalmond college place cited,”) if the writing summary essay American University Washington two references are exactly the same place in the work first cited, and an intervening footnote appears between the two references, the scholarship essay writing service washington academy author’s name is written, followed by critical judgments monkton combe school, loc. cit (Campbell) When the use of writing summary essay American University Washington, typing aids, and defining critical thinking st. clair college the suggestions for spacing, margins, pagination, together with the illustration of actual citations, references, and footnotes, typing manuscripts will no longer be a difficult task.