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For the sake of our discussion a relational database is a persistent storage mechanism that enables you to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy both store data and optionally implement functionality. The goal of this article is to overview relational database management system (RDBMS) technology and to how to write an essay for kids thompson rivers university explore the practical issues applicable to its use in modern organizations; the goal is not to how to write an persuasive essay stevenson academy discuss relational theory. RDBMSs are used to how to write an essay from an interview img academy store the information required by applications built using procedural technologies such as COBOL or FORTRAN, object technologies such as Java and C#, and component-based technologies such as Visual Basic. criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? Because RDBMSs are the dominant persistent storage technology it is critical that all IT professionals understand at least the basics of RDBMSs, the challenges surrounding the technology, and when it is how to write an persuasive essay stevenson academy, appropriate to use them. Tables typically have keys, one or more columns that uniquely identify a row within the table, in the case of the Customer table the key would be CustomerNumber . To improve access time to a data table you define an index on the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, table. An index provides a quick way to look up data based on one or more columns in the table, just like the index of a book enables you to find specific information quickly. The easiest way to manipulate a relational database is to writing a compare contrast essay george brown college submit Structured Query Language (SQL) statements to it. Figure 1 depicts a simple data model, see Data Modeling 101 or better yet Agile Data Modeling, using the proposed UML data modeling notation. To create a row in the Seminar table you would issue an INSERT statement, an example of which is shown in Code Figure 1. Similarly, Code Figure 2 presents and example of how to how to write an persuasive essay stevenson academy read a row by criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, issuing a SELECT statement. Code Figure 3 shows how to update an opinion essay writing university of southampton, existing row via an UPDATE statement and Code Figure 4 how to delete a row with a DELETE statement. All four of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy these examples were taken, as well as the data model, were adapted from The Object Primer. How to write an essay from an interview IMG Academy? A very good resource for learning SQL is SQL Queries for Mere Mortals by Micheal J. Hernandez and John L. Viescas. Code Figure 1. Websites that write essays for you Hanze University ofApplied Sciences? SQL statement to insert a row into the "Seminar" table. (SEMINAR_ID, COURSE_ID, OVERSEER_ID, SEMINAR_NUMBER) VALUES (74656, 1234, ‘THX0001138’, 2) Code Figure 2. SQL statement to retrieve a row from the "Seminar" table. WHERE SEMINAR_ID = 1701. Code Figure 3. SQL statement to update a row in a table in the "Seminar" table. SET OVERSEER_ID = ‘NCC0001701’, SEMINAR_NUMBER = 3. WHERE SEMINAR_ID = 1701. Code Figure 4. SQL statement to delete data from the "Seminar" table. WHERE SEMINAR_ID > 1701. AND OVERSEER_ID = ‘THX0001138’ Object storage . To store an how to write an essay from an interview img academy, object in a relational database you need to flatten it – create a data representation of the object – because relational databases only store data. To retrieve the object you would read the data from the database and then create the object, often referred to as restoring the object, based on that data. Although storing objects in a relational database sounds like a simple thing to achieve, practice shows that it isn’t. criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? This is due to the object-relational impedance mismatch, the fact that relational database technology and object technology are based on different underlying theories, a topic discussed in The Object-Relational (O/R) Impedance Mismatch. To store objects successfully in relational databases you need to learn how to map your object schema to your relational database schema. Implementing behavior within the database . Behavior is implemented in a relational database via stored procedures and/or stored functions that can be invoked internally within the database and often by external applications. Stored functions and procedures are operations that run within an RDBMS, the difference being what the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, operation can return and whether it can be invoked in a query. The differences aren’t important for our purposes so the term “stored procedure” will be used to refer to both stored functions and stored procedures. In the past stored procedures were written in how to write an persuasive essay stevenson academy a proprietary language, such as Oracle’s PL/SQL, although now Java is quickly becoming the language of choice for writing a compare contrast essay george brown college database programming. A stored procedure typically runs some SQL code, massages the data, and then hands back a response in the form of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy zero or more records, or a response code, or as a database error message. Effective use of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy stored procedures is discussed in detail in Implementation Strategies for Persisting Objects in RDBs. Concurrency control . How to write an essay from an interview IMG Academy? Consider an airline reservation system. There is criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, a flight with one seat left on it, and criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy two people are trying to reserve that seat at the same time. Both people check the flight status and how to write an essay from an interview img academy are told that a seat is criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, still available. Both enter their payment information and click the reservation button at the same time. What should happen? If the system is working properly only one person should be given a seat and the other should be told that there is no longer one available. Websites that write essays for you Hanze University ofApplied Sciences? Concurrency control is criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, what makes this happen. Concurrency control must be implemented throughout your object source code and criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy within your database. Transaction control . A transaction is a collection of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy actions on your database – such as the saving of, retrieval of, or deletion of data – which form a work unit. A flat transactions is an “all-or-nothing” approach where all the actions must either succeed or be rolled back (canceled). A nested transaction is an approach where some of the actions are transactions in their own right. These sub-transactions are committed once successful and criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy are not rolled back if the larger transaction fails. Transactions may also be short-lived, running in thousandths of a second, or long-lived, taking hours, days, weeks, or even months to complete. Transaction control is a critical concept for all developers to understand. criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? Enforcing referential integrity . Referential integrity (RI) is the assurance that a reference from one entity to another entity is valid. For example, if a customer references an address, then that address must exist. If the address is deleted then all references to it must also be removed, otherwise your system must not allow the deletion. Contrary to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy popular belief, RI isn’t just a database issue, it’s an issue for your entire system. Opinion essay writing University of Southampton? A customer is implemented as an object within a Java application and as one or more records in how to write an persuasive essay stevenson academy your database – addresses are also implemented as objects and as rows. To delete an address, you must remove the opinion essay writing university of southampton, address object from memory, any direct or indirect references to it (an indirect reference to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy an address would include a customer object knowing the value of the AddressID , the academic argumentative essay ridley college, primary key of the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, address in the database), the address row(s) from writing a compare contrast essay george brown college, your database, and criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy any references to it (via foreign keys) in your database. To complicate matters, if you have a farm of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy application servers that address object could exist simultaneously on several machines. Furthermore, if you have other applications accessing your database then it is possible that they too have representations of the address in how to write an essay from an interview img academy their memory as well. Worse yet, if the address is stored in how to write an essay from an interview img academy several places (e.g. different databases) you should also consider taking this into account. All developers should understand basic strategies for implementing referential integrity. Table 1 describes the common technical features found in criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy RDBMS products, potential ways that developers will use them, and the potential drawbacks associated with their use. Database cursors – A database cursor is effectively a handle to the results of a SQL query, enabling you to how to write an essay for kids thompson rivers university move forward and backward through the result set one or more records at a time. Accessing large results sets in how to write an essay for kids thompson rivers university smaller portions enables your application to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy display initial results earlier, increasing response time. Performance is improved when a portion of how to write an essay for kids thompson rivers university a result set is required because less data is transmitted across the network. Application developers need to understand that the underlying data can change between the times that data records are accessed via the cursor: previously retrieved records may have been deleted, records may have been inserted into previously retrieved portions of the result set, or previously retrieved records may have been modified. Not all cursors are created equal. Some cursors only allow forward scrolling. Cursors are a resource drain on the how to write an essay from an interview img academy, database because they are memory intensive. Java – Most database vendors support a Java VM within the database. Development of relatively platform independent behavior in the database. Development of data intensive behavior that results in a relatively small return value. Encapsulation of opinion essay writing university of southampton database access to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy support security access control to opinion essay writing university of southampton information. Implementation of shared behavior required by many applications. Different version of VMs between application server and criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy database server increases complexity of development. Behavior implemented in the database can easily become a bottleneck. Triggers – A trigger is a procedure that is run either before or after an action (such as a create, update, or delete) is performed on a row in a database table. Enforce referential integrity within your database. These types of triggers can often be automatically generated by your data modeling or database administration tool. Often a lowest common denominator for implementing referential integrity constraints. Perform hand-crafted audit logging. Hand-crafted, or hand-modified, triggers can be difficult to maintain and how to write an essay from an interview img academy will increase your dependency on criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, your database vendor. Triggers are typically implemented in a proprietary language requiring an extra skillset on your team. Because triggers are automatically invoked they can be very dangerous (such as “uncontrolled” cascading deletions resulting from chained delete triggers). Behavior implemented in the database can easily become a bottleneck if your database doesn’t scale well. Your application source code . criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? When you change your database schema you must also change the source code within your application that accesses the changed portion of the websites that write essays for you hanze university ofapplied sciences, schema. Figure 2 depicts the websites that write essays for you hanze university ofapplied sciences, best-case scenario – when it is only your application code that is coupled to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy your database schema. This situation is traditionally referred to as a stovepipe. These situations do exist and are often referred to as stand-alone applications, stovepipe systems, or greenfield projects. How to write an essay from an interview IMG Academy? Count yourself lucky if this is your situation because it is very rare in practice. Other application source code . Figure 3 depicts the worst-case scenario for relational databases – a wide variety of software systems are coupled to your database schema, a situation that is quite common with existing production databases. It is quite common to find that in addition to the application that your team is how to write an persuasive essay stevenson academy, currently working on that other applications, some of which you know about and criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy some of which you don’t, are also coupled to your database. Perhaps an criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, online system reads and writes to your database. Perhaps a manager has written a spreadsheet, unbeknownst to you, that reads data from your database that she uses to summarize information critical to her job. Data load source code . Websites that write essays for you Hanze University ofApplied Sciences? Data loads from other sources, such as government provided tax tables or your own test data, are often coupled to your database schema. Data extract source code . There may be data extraction scripts or programs that read data from your database, perhaps to produce an XML data file or simply so your data can be loaded into another database. Persistence frameworks/layers . A persistence framework encapsulates the logic for mapping application classes to persistent storage sources such as your database. Opinion essay writing University of Southampton? When you refactor your database schema you will need to update the meta data, or the source code as the case may be, which describes the mappings. Itself . Coupling exists within your database. How to write an essay from an interview IMG Academy? A single column is coupled to any stored procedure that references it, other tables that use the column as a foreign key, any view that references the column, and so on. A simple change could result in several changes throughout your database. Data migration scripts . Changes to your database schema will require changes to your data migration scripts. Test code . criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? Testing code includes any source code that puts your database into a known state, that performs transactions that affect your database, and that reads the results from the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, database to how to write an essay from an interview img academy compare it against criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy expected results. Clearly this code may need to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy be updated to reflect any database schema changes that you make. Documentation . Some of the most important documentation that you are likely to how to write an persuasive essay stevenson academy keep pertains to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy your physical database schema, including but not limited to physical data models and descriptive meta data. When your database schema changes the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, documentation describing will also need to change accordingly. Although Agile Modeling implores you to opinion essay writing university of southampton Update Only When It Hurts, that your documentation doesn’t have to be perfectly in how to write an persuasive essay stevenson academy synch with your schema at criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy all times, the reality is that you will need to academic argumentative essay ridley college update your docs at some point. As you can see, coupling is a serious issue when it comes to relational databases. To make matters worse the concept of coupling is virtually ignored within database theory circles. Although most database theory books will cover data normalization in excruciating detail, I argue that normalization is the data community’s way of how to write an essay for kids thompson rivers university addressing cohesion. My experience is that coupling becomes a serious issue only when you start to consider behavioral issues (e.g. criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? code), something that traditional database theory chooses not to address. criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? This is another reason to follow Agile Modeling (AM)’s Multiple Models principle and look beyond data (Ambler 2002a). Performance issues are difficult to predict . Websites that write essays for you Hanze University ofApplied Sciences? When you are working with a shared database, such as the situation implied in Figure 3, you may find that the performance characteristics of your database are hard to predict because each application accesses the database in its own unique way. For example, perhaps one legacy application updates information pertaining to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy items for sale sporadically throughout the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, month, enabling a human operator to add new items or update existing ones, activity that doesn’t really affect your application’s performance in a meaningful way. However, this same application also performs batch loads of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy items available for sale via other companies that you have partnered with, items that you want to carry on your web site as soon as they are available. These batch loads can take several minutes, during which period the Item table is criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, under heavy load and thus your online application is potentially affected. Data integrity is criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, difficult to ensure with shared databases . Because no single application has control over the data it is criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, very difficult to how to write an essay for kids thompson rivers university be sure that all applications are operating under the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, same business principles. Academic argumentative essay Ridley College? For example, your application may consider an order as fulfilled once it has been shipped and a payment has been received. The original legacy application that is still in use by your customer support representatives to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy take orders over the phone may consider an order as fulfilled once it has been shipped, the opinion essay writing university of southampton, payment received, and the payment deposited into your bank account. criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? A slight difference in the way that a fundamental business rule has been implemented may have serious business implications for criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy any application that accesses the shared databases. Less subtly, imagine what would happen if your online order taking application calculates the how to write an persuasive essay stevenson academy, total for an order and stores it in the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, order table, whereas the legacy application calculates the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, subtotals only for order items but does not total the order. When the order fulfillment application sees an order with no total it calculates the total, and appropriate taxes, whereas if a total already exists it uses the existing figure. If a customer makes an order online and then calls back a few hours later and has one of your customer service representatives modify their existing order, perhaps to add several items to it, the order total is no longer current because it has not been updated properly. criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? Referential integrity issues such as this are covered in detail in the Implementing Referential Integrity article. Operational databases require different design strategies than reporting databases . The schemas of operational databases reflect the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, operational needs of the applications that access them, often resulting in a reasonably normalized schema with some portions of it denormalized for performance reasons. Reporting databases, on the other hand, are typically highly denormalized with significant data redundancy within them to support a wide range of reporting needs. Every technology has its strengths and weaknesses, and RDBMS technology is not an exception to this rule. Luckily there are ways that you can mitigate some of these challenges, and encapsulation is an important technique to do so. By encapsulating access to a database, perhaps through something as simple as data access objects or something as complex as a persistence framework, you can reduce the coupling that your database is involved with. The Implementation Strategies for Persisting Objects in RDBs chapter compares and contrasts various encapsulation strategies that you have available to you. For now assume that it is possible to hide the details of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy your database schema from the majority of the developers within your organization while at the same time giving them access to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy your database. Some people, often just the Agile DBA(s) responsible for supporting the database, will need to understand and work with the how to write an persuasive essay stevenson academy, underlying schema to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy maintain and evolve the encapsulation strategy. One advantage of encapsulating access to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy your database is that it enables application programmers to focus on the business problem itself. Let’s assume we’re doing something simple such as data access objects that implement the how to write an persuasive essay stevenson academy, SQL code to access your database schema. The application programmers will work with these data access classes, not the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, database. This enables your Agile DBA to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy evolve the websites that write essays for you hanze university ofapplied sciences, database schema as they need to, perhaps via database refactorings, and all they need to worry about is keeping the data access classes up to date. This reveals a second advantage to this approach – it provides greater freedom to Agile DBAs to do their job. Figure 4 depicts the concept of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy encapsulating access to your database, showing how the best case scenario of writing a compare contrast essay george brown college Figure 2 and the worst case scenario of Figure 3 would likely change. In the best-case scenario your business source code would interact with the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, data access objects that in turn would interact with the database. The primary advantage would be that all of the data-related code would be in one place, making it easier to modify whenever database schema changes occurred or to support performance-related changes. criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? It’s interesting to note that the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, business code that your application programmers are writing would still be coupled to the data access objects. Therefore they’d need to change their code whenever the interface of a data access object changed. You’ll never get away from coupling. However, from the point of view of the application programmer this is a much easier change to detect and act on – with the database encapsulation strategy in place the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, application programmers are only dealing with program source code (e.g. criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? Java) and not program source code plus SQL code. Things aren’t quite so ideal for the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, worst-case scenario. Although it is possible that all applications could take advantage of your encapsulation strategy the reality is that only a subset will be able to. Platform incompatibility can be an issue – perhaps your data access objects are written in Java but some legacy applications are written using technologies that can’t easily access Java. Perhaps you’ve chosen not to rework some of your legacy applications simply to how to write an essay from an interview img academy use the database encapsulation strategy. Perhaps some applications already have an encapsulation strategy in how to write an essay from an interview img academy place (if so, you might want to consider reusing the existing strategy instead of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy building your own). Perhaps you want to use technologies, such as a bulk load facility, that require direct access to the database schema. The point to how to write an essay for kids thompson rivers university be made is that a portion of your organization’s application will be able to take advantage of your encapsulation strategy and some won’t. There is still a benefit to doing this, you are reducing coupling and therefore reducing your development costs and maintenance burden, the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, problem is that it isn’t a fully realized benefit. Another advantage of encapsulating access to a database is that it gives you a common place, in addition to the database itself, to implement data-oriented business rules. Object/relational databases . criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? Object/relational databases (ORDBs), or more properly object/relational database management systems (ORDBMSs), add new object storage capabilities to websites that write essays for you hanze university ofapplied sciences RDBMSs. ORDBs, add new facilities to integrate management of traditional fielded data, complex objects such as time-series and geo-spatial data and diverse binary media such as audio, video, images, and how to write an essay for kids thompson rivers university (sometimes) Java applets. criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? ORDBMSs basically add to RDBMSs features such as defined data types, for example you could define a data type called SurfaceAddress that has all of the attributes and criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy behaviors of an address, as well as the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, ability to how to write an essay from an interview img academy navigate objects in addition to an RDBMS’s ability to join tables. By implementing objects within the database, an ORDBMS can execute complex analytical and data manipulation operations to search and transform multimedia and other complex objects. ORDBs support the robust transaction and data-management features of websites that write essays for you hanze university ofapplied sciences RDBMSs while at the same time offer a limited form of the flexibility of object-oriented databases. Because of ORDBMSs relational foundation, database administrators work with familiar tabular structures and data definition languages (DDLs) and criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy programmers access them via familiar approaches such as SQL3, JDBC, and proprietary call interfaces. Object databases . Object databases (ODBs), also known as object-oriented databases (OODBs) or object-oriented database management systems (OODBMSs), nearly seamlessly add database/persistence functionality to object programming languages. In other words, full-fledged objects are implemented in the database. They bring much more than persistent storage of programming language objects. ODBs extend the semantics of Java to provide full-featured database programming capability, via new class libraries specific to opinion essay writing university of southampton the ODB vendor, while retaining native language compatibility. criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy? A major benefit of this approach is the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, unification of the websites that write essays for you hanze university ofapplied sciences, application and database development into a seamless model. As a result, applications require less code, use more natural persistence modeling, and code bases are easier to maintain. Object-oriented developers can write complete database applications with a modest amount of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy additional effort without the need to marshal their objects into flatten data structures for storage, as a result forgoing the marshalling overhead inherent with other persistence mechanism technologies (such as RDBs). This one-to-one mapping of application objects to criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy database objects provides higher performance management of websites that write essays for you hanze university ofapplied sciences objects and enables better management of the complex interrelationships between objects. Native XML databases . Native XML databases store information as XML documents following one of two approaches: First, a native XML database will either store a modified form of the entire XML document in the file system, perhaps in a compressed or pre-parsed binary form. Second, a native XML database may opt to map the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, structure of the document to the database, for example mapping the Document Object Model (DOM) to internal structures such as Elements, Attributes, and Text – exactly what is mapped depends on the database. The most important difference between these approaches, from the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, point of view of an application developer, is the websites that write essays for you hanze university ofapplied sciences, way they are accessed: with the criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, first approach the only interface to the data is XML and related technologies, such as XPath (a language design specifically for addressing parts of an XML document, visit www.w3.org for details) or the DOM whereas with the how to write an essay from an interview img academy, second approach the database should be accessible via standard technologies such as JDBC. The important thing to understand about native XML databases is that they work with the websites that write essays for you hanze university ofapplied sciences, internal structures of the XML documents – they don’t just store them as a binary large object (BLOB) in the how to write an essay from an interview img academy, database. Flat files . Flat files, such as .TXT or. CSV (comma separated value) files, are commonly used to store data. A single file can be used to store one type of data structure, such as customer information or sales transaction information, or through a coding and writing a compare contrast essay george brown college formatting strategy the structures of several types of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy data structures. One approach to flat file organization is writing a compare contrast essay george brown college, either to have data values separated by a pre-defined character, such as a comma, or tag, such as </FirstName> in an XML document. Another common approach is to delimit data values by size – the first 20 characters of the row represent the first name of the customer, the next 20 characters represent the surname, and so on. Hierarchical databases . Hierarchical databases link data structures together like a family tree such that each record type has only one owner, for example an order is criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy, owned by only one customer. Hierarchical structures were widely used in the first mainframe database management systems, and are still a very common source of data in many large organizations. Hierarchical databases fell out of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy favor with the advent of relational databases due to their lack of flexibility because it wouldn’t easily support data access outside the how to write an essay from an interview img academy, original design of the data structure. For example, in the customer-order schema you could only how to write an essay from an interview img academy access an order through a customer, you couldn’t easily find all the orders that included the sale of a widget because the schema isn’t designed to all that. Prevalence layer . Klaus Wuestefeld defines prevalence as “transparent persistence, fault-tolerance and load-balancing of the execution of the business logic of an information system through the use of state snapshots as well as command and query queuing or logging”. A prevalence layer is effectively a simple persistence framework that serializes objects and writes them to log files. From the point of view of how to write an essay from an interview img academy developers all objects are cached in criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy memory and the persistence of the objects is truly treated as a background task that the developers don’t need to worry about. Table 2 presents a comparison of the opinion essay writing university of southampton, various types of persistence mechanism and provides references to vendors where applicable. Table 3 presents suggestions for when you might use each type of how to write an essay from an interview img academy technology. Large organizations will find that they are using several types of persistence mechanism and will even install the opinion essay writing university of southampton, products of criticalthinking.com Stevenson Academy several different vendors. Not only do you have a choice you might be forced to work with a wide range of databases whether you want to or not.