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how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School

That same morning, Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall had sent a message to military commanders in how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Hawaii and the haravard business review chelsea independent college Philippines warning that an attack might be imminent, but when the message arrived the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School attack at Pearl Harbor was already underway. American military intelligence had broken the Japanese code but did not know precisely when and where the elsevier review rotterdam business school attack would occur. The shocking attack was a devastating blow, but it would have been much worse if not for the fact that the aircraft carriers were on essay writing sites grier school maneuvers at how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, sea. The attack was intended as a preemptive strike to prevent the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School U.S. from interfering with Japanese military operations in how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Southeast Asia. Adding insult to injury, the attack took place before any formal declaration of war was made by Japan, while Japanese diplomats were presenting a fake offer of peace--an ultimatum they knew would be rejected--to Secretary of write my essays bodwell high school, State Cordell Hull. The American navy quickly recovered and the Japanese victory at Pearl Harbor ultimately backfired. Less than five months after the Pearl Harbor attack, 18 April 1942, Lt. Colonel Jimmy Doolittle led an air strike on the Japanese home island of Honshu. Sixteen bombers participated in the mission--launched from the carrier Hornet about 600 miles from how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Japan--all of which were lost. Doolittle and his crew safely crash-landed in China. He was awarded the Medal of Honor. The damage to Japan was negligible, but it served as a powerful morale bolster for Americans. More importantly, the attack on how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Pearl Harbor had succeeded in "awakening a sleeping giant" by uniting Americans in a determined effort to not only defend their nation but to pay back Japan. "After Pearl Harbor," a worker in a General Motors factory in write my essays bodwell high school Flint, Michigan, later recalled, "there was an immediate change in people's attitude toward their work--their sense of urgency, their dedication, their team work." I n London, Prime Minister Winston Churchill's first thought was "we have won the war." That night "I slept the sleep of the saved and the thankful," he wrote. Sure enough, four days later Germany and Italy declared war on the United States, honoring the Tripartite Pact with Japan. World War II did not begin on December 7, 1941. It began in Europe on September 1, 1939, as units of the German Wehrmacht crossed the Polish border. Britain and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School France, honoring their pledge to Poland, declared war on Germany on September 3. Hitler's blitzkrieg (lightning war) tore across Europe in 1940. The war lasted nearly six years, and in the end much of Europe and Asia lay in how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School ruins, over thirty million people had been killed, great empires had been destroyed, and an how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, awesome new weapon of mass destruction had been unleashed upon the world. Adolf Hitler was a cunning politician and electrifying speaker who aroused German nationalism from the ashes of the First World War, the punitive Treaty of Versailles, and devastating economic depression. He had spelled out his vision in Mein Kampf , but no one took him seriously until he began to carry out his plan. After withdrawing Germany from the League of Nations in elsevier review rotterdam business school 1933, Hitler began an intense rebuilding of the armed forces, remilitarized the Rhineland, annexed Austria, the college prep electives bishopstrow college Sudetenland, and then the rest of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, Czechoslovakia in 1938. After signing a nonaggression pact with Soviet leader Josef Stalin, he invaded Poland. Allied with fascist dictator Benito Mussolini of Italy, Hitler envisioned a new world older dominated by Nazi Germany; but as a European politician with a continental outlook, he had little interest in the United States. To the extent that he thought about the U.S. at all, he believed the diversity of blacks (especially), Asians, Latinos and Europeans (many from "inferior" Mediterranean and Slavic countries) made Americans a "mongrel" people unworthy of his interest and doomed to self-destruction. Empire of the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Rising Sun. In the 1940 election campaign Roosevelt promised to keep America out essay writing sites grier school, of the war: "I have said this before, but I shall say it again and again and again; your boys are not going to be sent into how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School any foreign wars." The U.S. was not directly threatened by how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School either Japan or Germany; but Roosevelt recognized that American neutrality was tenuous. In the Far East, Japan had taken the line that she, and she alone, would dominate the affairs of elsevier review rotterdam business school, east Asia; the imperial powers of Europe were thought to be decadent and remote. Russia was the greatest threat to both German and Japanese expansion. In August 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact. Germany was free to attack western Europe. Neither Japan nor the U.S. felt threatened by the other, but the Pacific islands in between were in play; and by 1940 America had become an increasingly menacing obstacle to Japanese expansion. Japan had overtaken much of China. Also falling under Japanese control were Indochina (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia), and Thailand. Next in their sights were the Philippines, which belonged to the United States. In early 1941 Roosevelt issued an executive order freezing Japanese assets and cutting off exports. Either Japan could give up her aggressive plans and pull out of China, or there would be war. College prep electives Bishopstrow College. Japan chose the latter, hoping to establish a perimeter along a line of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, western Pacific islands and then negotiate a peace. The armed forces of the U.S. in 1941 consisted of about 1.5 million men, an writing essay exams the perkiomen school, air force of 1,200 combat aircraft, and a navy of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, 347 warships (including seventeen battleships and write my essays bodwell high school seven aircraft carriers). A substantial amount of this American military power was committed to how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School the Atlantic or coastal defense. The Japanese had about how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, 2.4 million troops and a reserve of nearly three million more. They possessed 7,500 aircraft and a first-class navy with about 230 combat vessels. As historian James Stokesbury succinctly put it, the Japanese "knew what they wanted and they knew what they had to do to how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School get it. Haravard business review Chelsea Independent College. destruction of the U.S. Pacific Fleet." The Arsenal of Democracy. T wo years before the writing essay exams the perkiomen school attack on Pearl Harbor, when war broke out in Europe and Germany quickly established dominance on the continent, Roosevelt had declared that the U.S. "must be the great arsenal of democracy." But Congress and the American people did not want to join the fighting. Polls showed that 80% of Americans opposed going to war; but nearly the same number favored helping England as the chief means of staying out of it. Besides, the country was still recovering from the depression, and both business and labor had been slow to respond. Conversion to a wartime economy was never easy, and isolationists in Congress tried to tie Roosevelt's hands. The Neutrality Act of 1935 imposed an embargo on elsevier review rotterdam business school trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war. The Neutrality Act of 1936 forbade all loans or credits to belligerents. Roosevelt convinced Congress to allow "cash-and-carry" and " lend-lease. " Roosevelt also "traded" fifty destroyers from the U.S. Navy to Britain for 99-year leases on several bases; and the White House sold outdated military goods to how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School private businesses who then dealt them to the British. In one month alone more than $43 million worth of weapons went to Britain, without technically violating neutrality laws. England and Russia might not have survived the German blitz without the essay writing books iubh school of business & management million-plus tons of war equipment and supplies provided by the U.S. Writing essay exams The Perkiomen School. via the $7 billion Lend-Lease Act passed by Congress in March 1941. Eventually Congress approved more than $50 billion in lend-lease funds. I n August 1941, Roosevelt met with Churchill off the coast of Newfoundland and writing essay exams the perkiomen school together they issued the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Atlantic Charter: a formal statement of eight war aims reminiscent of Wilson's Fourteen Points. Life on the Home Front. In August 1941, Roosevelt created the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Office of write my essays bodwell high school, Price Control (OPC) to handle inflation, and in April 1942 he announced a freeze on prices. People were expected to conserve everything useful for the war effort. Gasoline and rubber were rationed by the OPC, along with other consumer goods including canned food, coffee, sugar, shoes, and nylon stockings. Although neither the Japanese nor the Germans planned a major attack on the continental United States and the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School probability was low, the Atlantic and Pacific coastlines were on alert for the possibility of enemy attack. In fact, a Japanese submarine launched a float plane that bombed Oregon in September 1942, but the damage was insignificant and the attack was meaningless other than giving Japan something to cheer. There was no widespread panic because of writing essay exams the perkiomen school, heavy press censorship. Strict censorship governed the letters servicemen sent home from overseas, although sometimes secret codes enabled loved ones to maintain some degree of candid communication. Most Americans followed the news of the war through three sources: radio broadcasts, newspapers, and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School newsreels that preceded the movies at how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, their local theatres. News was essentially propaganda. Government control of the news was comprehensive. All news about the war had to pass through the writing essay exams the perkiomen school Office of War Information (OWI). Most of the ghastly images and descriptions were kept from the public. Instead, reports emphasized the steady march toward inevitable victory. By the fall of 1943, after almost two years at war, concerns about public complacency led the OWI to begin to allow the publication of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, images that showed the horrible truth. In January 1942 Roosevelt established the War Production Board (WPB). Write my essays Bodwell High School. The WPB had broad powers to mobilize the nation. Automobile plants stopped making cars and began turning out tanks, army trucks, jeeps, and airplanes. The National War Labor Board was created to prevent strikes, manage labor relations, and freeze wages. War contracts energized the economy, causing the writing essay exams the perkiomen school American gross national product to double during the war years. Demand for haravard business review chelsea independent college, agricultural products soared to how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School meet the needs of the millions of men serving in the military. To reduce civilian consumption, Americans were encouraged to plant "victory gardens." To pay the bills, federal spending rose to $320 billion between 1940 and essay writing books iubh school of business & management 1945. As military service drained the supply of white male workers, women and minorities entered the essay writing sites grier school industrial workforce in how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School unprecedented numbers. Symbolized by how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School icon Rosie the Riveter , 6.5 million "Rosies" entered the civilian workforce between 1940 and 1945, rising from 25 percent to 36 percent of the workforce. Attracted by how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School the need for personal income as well as patriotic duty , these women assumed many of the jobs traditionally restricted to men and found the work hard but satisfying (see Research Brief 3.B). Women did not just help on the home front. Elsevier review Rotterdam Business School. Approximately 350,000 women served in the U.S. Armed Forces. They included the Women's Army Corps (WACs), the Navy's Women Accepted for college prep electives bishopstrow college, Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES), and the Women's Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs), who on elsevier review rotterdam business school March 10, 2010, were awarded the prestigious Congressional Gold Medal. By the end of 1942, the nation was producing more than all of its enemies combined. At the Teheran Conference in college prep electives bishopstrow college 1943, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin toasted "American production, without which this war would have been lost." (Between 1942 and 1945 the U.S. produced 7,000 B-17 bombers, 4,000 B-29 bombers, 49,000 Sherman tanks, 1,000 naval destroyers and 152 aircraft carriers, financed in part by writing essay exams the perkiomen school $36 billion in how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School war bonds. At full production, the American economy managed to produce and college prep electives bishopstrow college equip huge armed forces and still generate surplus for home consumption. As an indirect consequence of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, war research, led by college prep electives bishopstrow college the Office of Scientific Research and Development, ordinary Americans began to experience the benefits of numerous improvements in convenience, health and safety. Executive Order 9066. Prejudice and discrimination against Japanese immigrants in California led President Theodore Roosevelt to intervene and negotiate a Gentlemen's Agreement in 1907. The attack on Pearl Harbor presented a more serious problem for Japanese-Americans and Teddy's cousin Franklin. Anger over the "sneak attack" on how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School the U.S. Pacific Fleet merged with fear of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, sabotage and espionage to ignite deep-rooted racism. Lt. how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School. General John L DeWitt, head of the Western Command, told newspapers that "A Jap's a Jap" and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School testified to Congress: "I don't want any of them [persons of haravard business review chelsea independent college, Japanese ancestry] here. They are a dangerous element. There is no way to determine their loyalty. how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School. It makes no difference whether he is an American citizen, he is how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, still a Japanese. American citizenship does not necessarily determine loyalty. But we must worry about the writing essay exams the perkiomen school Japanese all the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School time until he is wiped off the map." Pressed by DeWitt, California politicians, and newspaper editorials, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942, authorizing military commanders to how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School designate areas from which "any or all persons may be excluded." The result was a relocation program disturbingly similar to that of Nazi Germany but for one huge difference. "All persons of Japanese ancestry" were forced to sell their personal property and report to detention centers with just a suitcase, and then transported by elsevier review rotterdam business school bus to how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School remote internment camps where adults were assigned work duties. The camps usually consisted of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, flimsy wood and tar-paper barracks , hastily constructed in remote areas, enclosed by barbed wire and guarded by college prep electives bishopstrow college military police. The important different from Nazi concentration camps is that these inmates were not starved and gassed. Instead they were provided with as much of a normal life as possible while confined as prisoners of war: adequate shelter, food, clothing, medical care, recreation, and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School schooling for the children. The specific population subjected to the war relocation policy was approximately 125,000 Japanese Americans, two-thirds of whom were American citizens ( Nisei ), and the rest Japanese aliens (Issei) who were ineligible for citizenship under American law. how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School. (Few German-Americans were even questioned or briefly detained by federal authorities.) At the same time, ironically, thousands of Nisei men were judged loyal enough to serve in essay writing sites grier school the armed forces. Even though there were no cases of Japanese-American disloyalty and the racist undertones of the program were clearly evident from the start, in 1944 the elsevier review rotterdam business school Supreme Court upheld the relocation as a necessary wartime security measure in the Korematsu case. how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School. As wartime passions faded, however, public opinion softened, and in 1988 Congress provided an official apology and essay writing sites grier school financial restitution ($20,000) to survivors of the internment camps. (See Research Brief 3.C.) Long before the "Big Three" meeting of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, Roosevelt, Churchill and Josef Stalin at the Teheran Conference in 1943, FDR and his war council had agreed that Europe would be the primary focus. German submarines sank several million tons of Allied shipping in the first year of the war; but with the development of writing essay exams the perkiomen school, effective radar and sonar, the United States Navy soon controlled the Atlantic. Despite appeals from Stalin for a second front in how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School western Europe to relieve the pressure on the Soviet Army--suffering hundreds of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, thousands of casualties in the face of a major German offensive--President Roosevelt and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School British Prime Minister Winston Churchill agreed to launch a joint campaign in North Africa in November 1942. Code- named Operation Torch, the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School amphibious invasion of Morocco and Algeria was led by British commander Bernard Montgomery and American general George Patton. Allied victories pushed the Axis forces out of North Africa by the end of 1942 and took control of write my essays bodwell high school, Italy in the summer of 1943. Prime Minister Mussolini was deposed and imprisoned. (Freed from essay writing books iubh school of business & management his remote mountain prison in an audacious glider raid sent by Hitler, he was captured in the final days of the war and executed.) A far more important turning point was the Battle of Stalingrad, which lasted from August 1942 until February 1943. The entire German 6th Army, the college prep electives bishopstrow college pride of Hitler's Wehrmacht, was destroyed; a conservative estimate is that 150,000 German soldiers died and an additional 100,000 were captured (forced-marched to Siberia). Total casualties for both sides are estimated to be over two million. More Russian soldiers died in the one great battle for Stalingrad than Americans did in essay writing books iubh school of business & management all the battles of the entire war. After the German defeat at Stalingrad, the most important turning point of the war in how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Europe was the Allied invasion of Nazi- occupied France on June 6, 1944 (see Research Brief 3.D ). how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School. The success of Operation Overlord, commanded by Gen. Dwight Eisenhower , was due to careful preparation including an elaborate deception, an imaginary invasion at Pas-de-Calais, called Operation Fortitude. The operation was not perfect: the airborne paratroopers and college prep electives bishopstrow college gliders dropped in Normandy the night before the landing were scattered off-target, but they were still able to confuse and disrupt German communications; and the aerial bombardment of concrete bunkers along the coast had little effect. At dawn, 4,000 Allied ships landed 133,000 troops and supplies on the beaches of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, Normandy in essay writing sites grier school the face of stiff German resistance. Counting both air and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School sea operations, over 170,000 Allied troops took part in the invasion at a cost of nearly 5,000 casualties--(at Omaha Beach alone, where 40,000 Americans went ashore, there were 2,200 casualties)--as the Allies fought their way through the Atlantic Wall of fixed fortifications and mobile German Panzer units. (Brigadier General Teddy Roosevelt , son of President Theodore Roosevelt and the most decorated soldier to serve in college prep electives bishopstrow college World War II, was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, his heroic leadership on elsevier review rotterdam business school D-Day.) The Allied success in the Normandy invasion was essentially due to three factors: (1) Eisenhower's careful planning--including secrecy and deception that enhanced the element of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, surprise, (2) the essay writing sites grier school courageous and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School determined efforts of the landing parties that hit the beaches on college prep electives bishopstrow college June 6, and (3) the haravard business review chelsea independent college tactical blunders of the German high command (mainly Hitler himself). Hitler relied primarily on an Atlantic Wall of fixed fortifications rather than well-trained and motivated troops (many of the German forces in Normandy were conscripts from Eastern Europe, weak replacements for the elite Wehrmacht units lost on the Eastern front). Moreover, instead of giving German commanders a free hand, Hitler personally directed military operations from haravard business review chelsea independent college his headquarters in a bunker far from the field. Indeed, Hitler was asleep when the D-Day landings began and his staff chose not to disturb him. When he did awake, Hitler held back the Panzer (mobile armored) divisions in the belief that Normandy was a diversion from essay writing books iubh school of business & management Calais. Von Rundstedt's counterattack finally did come, but it was too late. Within three weeks, over one million troops (plus 150,000 vehicles and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School nearly 600,000 tons of supplies) had landed at Normandy and opened the long-awaited second front. Within three months the Allies had liberated Paris. By the end of September the Allies had made an amazing advance of 350 miles, but they essentially overextended their lines, having not anticipated the elsevier review rotterdam business school rapid German collapse in France. Facing a shortage of fuel, ammunition and writing essay exams the perkiomen school other logistical support, the Allies paused in November to position six armies massed on essay writing sites grier school the Western front (48 Allied divisions spread along a 600-mile front extending from the North Sea to Switzerland). The Battle of the Bulge. In December 1944 the Germans suddenly struck with a surprise counteroffensive in Belgium known as the Battle of the Bulge . While bad weather prevented Allied air reconnaissance and support, eight German Panzer divisions penetrated American lines, cutting off the 101st Airborne at Bastogne. When the weather finally cleared, Allied planes bombed and strafed the German divisions, forcing them to withdraw. Casualties were heavy on how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School both sides, but the Allies were growing in strength, while German resistance was collapsing, caught between British/American forces from the West and the Soviet Red Army in the East. In the spring of 1945, with the Soviet Red Army closing in on Berlin and the defeat of Germany imminent, Hitler killed himself on April 30th. His Third Reich, which he predicted would rule Europe for 1,000 years, had been destroyed. Germany surrendered on May 8th and the Allies began to formulate plans for restoring order to war torn Europe; but first the war in the Pacific had to be finished. As the Allies pushed into German-held territory in how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School early 1945, the greatest horror of the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School war was revealed. Initially the camps were used to writing essay exams the perkiomen school house "undesirable" people relocated from occupied territory--Jews, Jehovah's Witnesses, Communists, gypsies, homosexuals, Poles, Slavs, and Russians--and inmates were used for slave labor. Infection, disease and starvation took a horrible toll. Haravard business review Chelsea Independent College. A majority of the six million Jews who died in the Holocaust were murdered as part of the policy of genocide, Hitler's "Final Solution" to the Jewish problem. Haravard business review Chelsea Independent College. Families were killed with poison gas and their bodies were incinerated in specially-made ovens. The Allies had learned of the Nazi death camps in 1942 but they did virtually nothing to abate the tragedy. Perhaps the Allies should have done more, such as bombing the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School rail lines to the camps or sending in airborne commando forces to elsevier review rotterdam business school sabotage the death factories. Ultimately Roosevelt and his advisors concluded that the best remedy was to win the write my essays bodwell high school war as quickly as possible. The U.S. was not idle in the Pacific all of this time. In February 1942 the Japanese drove American forces commanded by General Douglas MacArthur out of the Philippines. The U.S. response was a two-pronged strategy. Using Australia as a base, MacArthur tried to reclaim the Philippines, secure the southeast coast of China, and then launch air attacks on Japan. At the same time, Admiral Chester Nimitz set out to destroy the Japanese fleet while conducting a series of amphibious landings on island chains across the central Pacific (a slow and costly strategy termed "island-hopping"). In May 1942 an elsevier review rotterdam business school, American naval task force won a major victory in how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School the Coral Sea (south of New Guinea). The tide of the war turned in June 1942 at Midway Island. Tipped off by naval intelligence, Nimitz surprised the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Japanese fleet and haravard business review chelsea independent college U.S. planes sank four Japanese carriers before their planes could take off. A hard-fought Allied victory followed at Guadalcanal two months later. Before long, American B-29 bombers were attacking cities in the home islands of the Japanese Empire. how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School. In October 1942, Nimitz assigned command of all ground, sea, and air forces in the South Pacific area to how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Admiral William "Bull" Halsey (left). By the end of 1944, the combined sea and air strategy had brought Japan to haravard business review chelsea independent college the brink of total defeat, but tough fighting lay ahead at Iwo Jima (February 1945) and Okinawa (April-June 1945). In a final, desperate show of determination, the college prep electives bishopstrow college Japanese resorted to fierce kamikaze attacks on American ships. Kamikaze attacks were organized suicide missions in how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School which various types of warplanes were strategically flown by Japanese pilots into an enemy ship. The word kamikaze means "divine wind.” Its origin has been traced back to the 11th century when a Mongol armada led by Kublai Khan (grandson of Genghis Khan) was attempting to take over the Japanese islands. how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School. A typhoon destroyed the elsevier review rotterdam business school Mongol fleet and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School was said to have been sent by God (see Research Brief 3.E). By the end of the war, the Japanese had sacrificed nearly 4,000 kamikaze pilots. The military effect of kamikaze tactics was significant but not overwhelming. All combined, kamikaze operations sunk 34 ships and essay writing books iubh school of business & management damaged 288 others. One such ship was the aircraft carrier Ticonderoga, crippled by two Kamikaze hits in the Formosa Straights on essay writing books iubh school of business & management January 21, 1945. Onboard was Seaman 1st Class George Hanson of Greenville, Pennsylvania. The badly damaged ship limped all the way back to how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Seattle for elsevier review rotterdam business school, repairs. Hanson came home to writing essay exams the perkiomen school Greenville on leave, married his girlfriend, and was back in action on the Ticonderoga in May. (Eight years later George and Sue Hanson had a son they named David, now a history professor in Virginia.) On June 2-3, Ticonderoga fighter planes struck the airfields on Kyushu in an effort to neutralize the remnants of Japanese air power--particularly the Kamikaze Corps--and to relieve the pressure on American forces at Okinawa. In July and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School August her planes pounded Nagoya, Osaka, Miko, Honshu, Hokkaido and Tokyo until the surrender of Japan. Franklin Roosevelt, who had led the nation through most of the economic depression and war (twelve years in the White House), was in the fourth month of his fourth term as president when he suddenly died of a cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1945. Vice President Truman became the nation's new commander-in-chief. (John Garner of Texas was V.P. during Roosevelt's first two terms; Henry Wallace of Iowa was V.P. for the third term; and Harry Truman of Missouri was the new V.P. for less than twelve weeks.) As stated above, Hitler committed suicide on April 30 and Germany surrendered on May 8. Truman would have to work with the writing essay exams the perkiomen school Allies on the problem of writing essay exams the perkiomen school, what to do about postwar Germany and the rest of Europe; but first there was the matter of Japan. In July Truman met in how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School the German city of Potsdam with British Prime Minister Clement Attlee--who replaced Winston Churchill that same month--and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin in the final " Big Three " conference of the war. One result of the meeting was the Potsdam Declaration (July 26, 1945), an ultimatum to how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School Japan threatening "prompt and utter destruction" unless they agreed to unconditionally surrender. Precisely what that meant was unclear to the Japanese. Before long they would find out. On August 2, 1941, four months before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought the U.S. into the war, renowned German physicist Albert Einstein, who had emigrated to the U.S. in 1933 because of haravard business review chelsea independent college, Nazi persecution of Jews, wrote a letter to President Roosevelt. how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School. Einstein warned that German scientists were working on an atomic bomb. The best defense against such a weapon, he wrote, would be American atomic bombs. Einstein's letter urging Roosevelt to approve research and development of an writing essay exams the perkiomen school, atomic bomb sat on the desk of Alexander Sachs, an economic advisor to the president, until October 11. The project began on a small scale in December 1941. (One of the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School engineering firms contracted to work on the project had offices in Manhattan, thus the code name.) Eventually it grew to employ 130,000 people at its peak, at a cost of $2 billion ($27 billion in 2016 dollars). Einstein never worked on writing essay exams the perkiomen school the project because he was denied the security clearance. On July 16, 1945, the haravard business review chelsea independent college day before the opening of the Potsdam Conference, the first atomic bomb ever developed was detonated in New Mexico as a test. Truman was informed of the successful test, and on July 24 he privately informed Stalin that the U.S. was now in the possession of a powerful new weapon. The Soviet leader reacted coyly to the news: "I hope you make good use of it." Stalin agreed to honor his promise made to Roosevelt at how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, the Yalta Conference in write my essays bodwell high school February: that he would declare war on Japan and haravard business review chelsea independent college attack once Germany was defeated. how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School. Sure enough, within two weeks Soviet troops would be in Manchuria. Truman did not hesitate. On the advice of the War Department and White House advisors, he gave the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School go-ahead to use the new secret weapon against Japan as soon as possible. The sooner Japan surrendered, the fewer lives would be lost, and the less Japanese-held land would be occupied by Soviet troops. An atomic bomb (a uranium device nicknamed Little Boy ) was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945; three days later a second atomic bomb (a plutonium device nicknamed Fat Man ) instantly wiped out elsevier review rotterdam business school, much of Nagasaki . Why this was done, what effect it had on Japan, and essay writing sites grier school whether it was morally proper are questions that historians have debated ever since. (See Research Brief 3.F.) By his own account and that of contemporaries, Truman did not agonize over this momentous decision nor harbor any second thoughts in the years that followed. College prep electives Bishopstrow College. He was delighted with the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School results of American "weapons of mass destruction" (a term popularized in the 21st century). "He was not actually laughing," wrote his aide Merriman Smith, "but there was a broad smile on his face" when he heard that Little Boy was a success . In a statement to the press, Truman announced that Japan had been "repaid many fold" for Pearl Harbor. how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School. He declared that the weapon was used to "shorten the agony of war, in order to save the essay writing sites grier school lives of thousands and thousands of young Americans." The implication was that Japan would not otherwise surrender, and that an how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, invasion of the home islands would be costly. However, no land invasion had been planned to take place before November 1945. It was entirely possible that three more months of strategic bombing and a naval blockade, with Soviet troops advancing from the west, would have brought the Japanese to their knees. Truman knew, moreover, that the Japanese were negotiating for conditional surrender through intermediaries a month before the first atomic bomb was dropped. Even after the atomic bombs were dropped, the fate of the emperor turned out to how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School be the sticking point. To summarize, why were atomic bombs dropped on Japan? In short, (1) to pay back Japan and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School (2) to end the war promptly, saving American lives. Also, as a bonus, (3) Truman believed this demonstration of unrivaled military power would intimidate Stalin. Furthermore, (4) whether or not Truman was thinking about the political implications, it is likely that Secretary of State James Byrnes was: far easier to explain to Congress and the American people why the powerful new weapon, developed at a cost of $2 billion, was used on Japan, than to explain why it wasn't. President for just four months following Roosevelt's death, Truman did not want to appear weak and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School indecisive. The main purpose was to push the Japanese government to accept the inevitability of defeat and agree to surrender, hastening an end to the war. It was understood that the A-bomb would destroy whatever city it hit, instantly killing many Japanese civilians. That was the point. That is why heavily-populated cities, largely unscathed by prior American bombing, were on the atomic bomb hit list: to maximize the essay writing sites grier school impact. The tricky question is how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, why did Japan surrender? Since 1940 U.S. military intelligence had been intercepting Japanese communications. Under the cover name of "Magic," classified briefings were provided to the President and his cabinet. Thus, in the summer of 1945, U.S. officials had a secret window into the frantic decision-making of the Japanese high command as revealed through coded telegrams. As early as June, Truman and elsevier review rotterdam business school his advisers recognized that civilian leaders of how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School, Japan (not necessarily the military leaders) were ready to capitulate if the Allies showed more flexibility on the demand for unconditional surrender. For reasons that are unclear, Truman waited until after the atomic bombing, and Soviet entry, to assure Japan that they need not worry about the fate of Emperor Hirohito. Perhaps Truman finally came to the realization that his hard line on how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School the fate of the emperor served no purpose, and how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School that on the contrary it was needlessly prolonging Japanese resistance to surrender. Allowing the Japanese people that small but important bit of national honor also facilitated peaceful acceptance of U.S. military occupation. To recap, on August 6 the first atomic bomb was dropped; August 9 the second atomic bomb was dropped and elsevier review rotterdam business school Soviet troops invaded Manchuria; August 10 Japan issued a surrender offer on the condition that the Potsdam Declaration “not comprise any demand which prejudices the prerogatives of His Majesty as a sovereign ruler.” The Japanese prime minister and his divided cabinet were deadlocked over elsevier review rotterdam business school, whether or not to surrender with the uncertain fate of the emperor. Shaken by the two atomic bombs, frightened about the haravard business review chelsea independent college rapid movement of Soviet forces into Manchuria, and worried that the army might launch a coup, the peace faction set in haravard business review chelsea independent college motion a plan to persuade Emperor Hirohito to resolve the stalemate. On the morning of August 14, having received reassurance through channels that he would retain his throne, Hirohito met with the haravard business review chelsea independent college cabinet at the bomb shelter in his palace. He argued that continuing the war would reduce the nation "to ashes." Hirohito's language about "bearing the unbearable" and sadness over wartime losses and suffering prefigured the language he would use in his public announcement the next day. Write my essays Bodwell High School. The emperor said he would make a recording of the how to write an effective persuasive essay Lime House School surrender announcement so that the nation could hear it. That evening army officers tried to haravard business review chelsea independent college seize the palace and find Hirohito's recording, but the coup failed. Early the next day, General Anami, leader of the essay writing books iubh school of business & management coup, committed suicide. Hirohito's message was broadcast to the nation on August 15.