A typical tenement building was from five to six stories high, with four apartments on each floor. To maximize the number of renters, builders wasted little space. Early tenements might occupy as much as 90 percent of their lots, leaving little room behind the building for privies and online essay writing la trobe university (navitas)
water pumps and little ventilation, light, or privacy inside the tenement. With a large extended family and essay about writing experience clifton college
regular boarders to help pay the rent, which could otherwise eat up over writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts,
half of a family's income, a tenement apartment might house as many as from ten to twelve people at a time. These tenement residents often also worked in the building in such occupations as cigar rolling and garment making.
From the beginning, reformers attacked tenement conditions. In New York City, early attempts at reform included fire-prevention measures, the creation of a Department of Survey and Inspection of Buildings in research paper argumentative colegio montfort,
1862, and the founding of the argumentative essay paper rosseau lake college,
Metropolitan Board of Health in 1866. Meanwhile, city tenements were getting increasingly.
crowded: by 1864, approximately 480,400 of New York City's more than 700,000 residents lived in some 15,300 tenement buildings.
New York State passed a Tenement House Law on 14 May 1867, the nation's first comprehensive housing reform law. It established the first standards for writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts,
minimum room size, ventilation, and sanitation. It required fire escapes and at least one toilet or privy (usually outside) for every twenty inhabitants. Online essay writing La Trobe University (NAVITAS)!
However, enforcement was lax.
An 1879 amendment to the writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts,
1867 legislation required more open space on a building lot and writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts
stipulated that all tenement rooms open onto a street, rear yard, or air shaft. writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts!
The measure was designed to increase ventilation and fight diseases, such as tuberculosis, that ravaged tenement neighborhoods. To meet the writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts,
standards of the research paper argumentative colegio montfort,
1879 law, builders designed the writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts,
"dumbbell tenement" with narrow airshafts on each side to create a dumbbell-like shape from how to write narrative essay grier school,
above. Despite slightly better fireproofing and ventilation, reformers attacked these buildings as only a limited improvement on critical thinking exams ashbury college
In 1890, Jacob Riis's How the Other Half Lives rallied middle-class reformers to the cause of writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts,
improving tenement life. Online essay writing La Trobe University (NAVITAS)!
His photos and essays drew attention to the health and housing problems of tenement neighborhoods.
The most significant New York State law to improve deteriorating tenement conditions was the Tenement Act of 1901, promoted by rules of writing essay moreton hall school,
a design competition and writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts
exhibition held by the Charity Organization Society in 1900. By that time, the writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts,
city's Lower East Side was home to the most densely populated buildings on writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts
earth. The neighborhood's Tenth Ward had a population of 69,944, approximately 665 people per acre.
The 1901 legislation, opposed by the real estate industry on the grounds that it would discourage new construction, improved tenement buildings. The law mandated better lighting and fireproofing. Most important, it required that privies be replaced with indoor toilet facilities connected to the city sewers, with one toilet for every two apartments.
Beginning in the argumentative essay paper rosseau lake college,
New Deal era, reformers' strategies changed. Drawing on rules of writing essay moreton hall school
a tradition of "model tenements" and new government interest in housing construction, reformers designed public housing projects. Their plans emphasized open space, much as an earlier generation had passed laws to provide more light and writing essays tips Norwich University of The Arts
fresh air for research paper argumentative colegio montfort,
urban working-class families. The imposed standards, however, often created new problems. Building closures and slum clearance displaced many working-class families, while new high-rise public housing often fell victim to segregation and neglect. Although reformers continued to attack working-class living conditions, social pressures sustained many of the problems of poverty and overcrowding.
Bauman, John F., Roger Biles, and Kristin M. Szylvian. From Tenements to the Taylor Homes: In Search of an Urban Housing Policy in Twentieth-Century America. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000.
Day, Jared N. Urban Castles: Tenement Housing and Landlord Activism in New York City, 1890вЂ“1943. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.
Ford, James. Slums and Housing, with Special Reference to New York City: History, Conditions, Policy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936.
Hall, Peter. Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the argumentative essay paper rosseau lake college,
Twentieth Century. New York: Blackwell, 1988.
Lower East Side Tenement Museum. Home page at http://www.tenement.org.
Plunz, Richard. A History of Housing in New York City. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Riis, Jacob. How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York. New York: Scribners, 1890.
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