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Children in Pakistan engage in the write me essay CATS College Canterbury, worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and bonded labor in brick kilns.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Pakistan. Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education. Working (% and population) Combining work and school (%) Primary completion rate (%) Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016. Critical analysis of journal article Norwich University of The Arts. (3) Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014. (4) Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an write me essay CATS College Canterbury overview of children's work by sector and activity. Table 2. write me essay CATS College Canterbury. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and steps to write essay domus academy, Activity. Farming, including harvesting cotton, wheat, dates, sugarcane, tobacco, and potatoes (5-14) Fishing,† including deep-sea fishing,† and harvesting and processing shrimp† (15-17) Manufacturing glass bangles,† surgical instruments,† and palm leaf mats (10, 12, 18, 19) Weaving carpets,† tanning leather,† stitching soccer balls, weaving cloth using power looms,† and write me essay CATS College Canterbury, producing incense (6, 14, 16, 17, 20-24) Producing bricks; mining coal,† salt, and gemstones; and quarrying and crushing stone,† including gypsum (2, 5, 6, 10, 14, 21, 23, 25-30) Welding and steel fabrication, carpentry in small workshops, and construction† (8, 10, 21, 26, 28, 29, 31) Working in harvard busines review the asia pacific university of technology & innovation (apu), hotels, restaurants, tea stalls, gas stations, and transportation (5-7, 9, 10, 21, 23, 26, 28, 29, 33, 36, 37) Scavenging† and steps to write essay domus academy, sorting recyclables and collecting waste paper (6, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 23, 29, 38) Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡ Forced labor in brickmaking, carpet weaving, agriculture, manufacturing glass bangles, and mining coal (2, 13, 14, 24, 39, 40) Forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 35, 40) Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (13, 40, 41) Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (13, 40, 42) Forced recruitment of children by write me essay CATS College Canterbury non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (17, 40) Use in illicit activities, including trafficking and producing drugs (17) † Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182. ‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per harvard busines review the asia pacific university of technology & innovation (apu), se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182. A national child labor survey has not been conducted since 1996, and the lack of how to write a article summary durham university, recent data hampers the ability of steps to write essay domus academy, the Federal and Provincial Governments to accurately assess the write me essay CATS College Canterbury, scope and prevalence of child labor.(13) Many child domestic workers are working under conditions of forced labor, including debt bondage, sexual assault, and extreme physical abuse.(1, 35, 40) Some children work with their families as bonded laborers in the how to write a article summary durham university, production of bricks.(13, 40) Non-state militant groups, such as pro-Taliban insurgents, force children to engage in espionage, armed conflict, and how to write a psychology essay leysin american school, suicide attacks.(17, 40) There are reports that religious schools are used for write me essay CATS College Canterbury military recruitment and training for armed groups.(43) Many children face barriers in accessing education due to high rates of how to write a psychology essay leysin american school, teacher absenteeism, inadequate facilities, lack of transportation, and custom written essays trent university, corporal punishment, which may deter children from attending school.(17, 44, 45) Armed groups and extremist groups regularly attack and threaten schools, disrupting children's access to education.(17, 46) Pakistan has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3). Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor. ILO C. 138, Minimum Age. ILO C. write me essay CATS College Canterbury. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor. UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict. UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography. Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons. In 2016, Pakistan ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict. The Federal Government and Provincial Governments, including Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, and Sindh have established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). write me essay CATS College Canterbury. However, gaps exist in Pakistan's legal framework to address and protect children from child labor. Table 4. Laws and write me essay CATS College Canterbury, Regulations on harvard busines review the asia pacific university of technology & innovation (apu) Child Labor. Meets International Standards: Yes/No. Minimum Age for Work. Section 50 of the Factories Act; Section 20 of the Shops and Establishments Ordinance; Section 26 of the Mines Act (47-49) Section 3(1) of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Ordinance; Section 5 of write me essay CATS College Canterbury, the Punjab Prohibition of Child Labor at Brick Kilns Act (50, 51) Sections 2(1)(b) and 3(1) of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Prohibition of Employment of Children Act (52) Section 3(1) of the Sindh Prohibition of write me essay CATS College Canterbury, Employment of Children Act; Section 81 of the Sindh Factories Act; Section 20 of the Sindh Shops and Commercial Establishment Act (53-55) Minimum Age for Hazardous Work. Sections 2–3 of the Employment of how to write a article summary durham university, Children Act (56) Section 3(2) of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Ordinance (51) Sections 2(1)(a) and 3(2) of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Prohibition of Employment of write me essay CATS College Canterbury, Children Act (52) Section 3(2) of the Sindh Prohibition of write me essay CATS College Canterbury, Employment of Children Act (55) Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for how to write a article summary durham university Children. Parts 1–2 of the Schedule of steps to write essay domus academy, the Employment of Children Act (56) Schedule of Hazardous Work of write me essay CATS College Canterbury, the Punjab Restriction on Employment of write me essay CATS College Canterbury, Children Ordinance (51) Parts 1–2 of the Schedule of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Prohibition of Employment of Children Act (52) Schedule of the Hazardous Work of the Sindh Prohibition of Employment of write me essay CATS College Canterbury, Children Act (55) Prohibition of Forced Labor. Section 4 of the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act; Sections 367, 370, 371A, 371B, and 374 of the Penal Code (57, 58) Section 11(3) of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Ordinance; Section 4 of the Punjab Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act (51, 59) Sections 2(j) and 3 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act (60) Section 4 of the Sindh Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act (61) Prohibition of Child Trafficking. Sections 2 and 3 of the Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance; Sections 366A and 366B of write me essay CATS College Canterbury, the Penal Code (58, 62) Section 52 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act (63) Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. Section 11(3)(b) of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Ordinance; Section 40 of the Punjab Destitute and Neglected Children Act (51, 65) Sections 48 and 50 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act (63) Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities. Section 11(3)(c) of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Act; Section 36 of write me essay CATS College Canterbury, the Punjab Destitute and Neglected Children Act (51, 65) Sections 35, 38, and 45 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and write me essay CATS College Canterbury, Welfare Act (63) Minimum Age for Military Recruitment. Section 3 of the National Service Ordinance (66) Section 11(3)(a) of custom written essays trent university, the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Act(51) Compulsory Education Age. Section 3 of the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (67) The Punjab Free and harvard busines review the asia pacific university of technology & innovation (apu), Compulsory Education Ordinance (68) Section 3(1) of the Sindh Right of custom written essays trent university, Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (69) Section 3 of the Balochistan Compulsory Education Act (70) Free Public Education. Section 3 of the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (67) The Punjab Free and Compulsory Education Act (68) Section 3(1) of harvard busines review the asia pacific university of technology & innovation (apu), the Sindh Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (69) Section 2(f) of the Balochistan Compulsory Education Act (70) The 18th Amendment to the Pakistan Constitution devolves all child welfare and labor issues from the Federal Government to the four Provincial Governments. Until each Province repeals or adopts a replacement law, Federal child labor laws are in how to write english essay anglia ruskin university (navitas), force.(71) According to the Constitution, both Federal and how to write a article summary durham university, Provincial Governments can pass legislation on criminal law.(72) In 2016, Punjab Province passed the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Act, which establishes age 15 as the minimum age for employment and age 18 as the how to write english essay anglia ruskin university (navitas), minimum age for employment in hazardous work.(51) The Province also passed the Punjab Prohibition of Child Labor at Brick Kilns Act, which prohibits the harvard busines review the asia pacific university of technology & innovation (apu), employment of children under age 14 at brick kilns.(50) During the year, Sindh Province passed laws prohibiting children under age 15 from working in factories and commercial establishments.(53, 54) Sindh Province also passed the Sindh Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act.(61, 73) The Federal Government gave the final approval for write me essay CATS College Canterbury the Criminal Law (Second Amendment) Act, which prohibits the steps to write essay domus academy, use of children in pornography.(64) In 2017, Sindh Province passed the write me essay CATS College Canterbury, Sindh Prohibition of Employment of Children, which establishes age 15 as the minimum age for employment and age 19 as the minimum age for employment in write me essay CATS College Canterbury, hazardous work.(55) Pakistan's Federal and Provincial laws are not completely in compliance with international standards on child labor, including the worst forms of child labor. Balochistan Province has not established a minimum age for employment or a minimum age for hazardous work. The Federal law setting the minimum age of 15 for hazardous work is how to write a psychology essay leysin american school, not in write me essay CATS College Canterbury, compliance with international standards.(56) Hazardous work prohibitions for the Federal Government and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, and Sindh Provinces are not comprehensive because they do not cover brickmaking and write me essay CATS College Canterbury, domestic work.(51, 52, 55, 56) The Federal Government's minimum age for work and minimum age for hazardous work are not in compliance with international standards because they do not extend to harvard busines review the asia pacific university of technology & innovation (apu) informal employment.(47-49, 56) Sindh Province's laws setting the minimum age for custom written essays trent university work also do not extend to informal work, because they apply only to factories that employ 10 or more employees, and shops and establishments.(53, 54) The Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act do not comply with international standards because they do not provide that children can be trafficked without coercion. These laws are also insufficient because they do not specifically prohibit internal human trafficking.(62, 63) The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and steps to write essay domus academy, Welfare Act further does not comply with international standards because it prohibits child trafficking only for exploitative entertainment.(63) The Federal Penal Code does not specifically prohibit the use, procuring, and write me essay CATS College Canterbury, offering of children for pornographic performances.(58) Although the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act prohibits the use of a child for how to write english essay anglia ruskin university (navitas) the production of pornography, the law does not prohibit procuring and offering a child for the production of write me essay CATS College Canterbury, pornography. It also does not prohibit using, procuring, and offering of a child for prostitution or pornographic performances.(63) Federal and Provincial laws, with the exception of the Punjab Provincial law, do not prohibit the use of children in drug production and drug trafficking.(51, 63) The Federal and Provincial Governments, with the exception of write me essay CATS College Canterbury, Punjab Province, have not enacted laws that prohibit the custom written essays trent university, recruitment and use of children by non-state groups for armed conflict.(17)