The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.
Imagine a kaleidoscope--you put your eye up to the eyepiece and lift it to the writing scientific articles lake forest academy,
light; colorful pieces of the world scatter before you, until they finally stop in an organized pattern--an imaginative parallel to language processing. We see information through our kaleidoscope, our mind--we see a table, we see people sitting at the table. Somehow we have to organize the information; we do this "by the how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy,
linguistic systems in our minds.â€ť We agree to how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy
arrange data in this way (Whorf, â€śScience and Linguistics,â€ť Technology Review).
In Daniel Chandlerâ€™s review, â€śThe Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis,â€ť Chandler describes the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: thought is formed by the systems of language. This is a determinist view, in which â€ś thinking is how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy,
determined by language.â€ť Sapir and how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy
Whorf believe that any change to the words (such as translating a poem from one language to another) could result in a change of meaning.
Although most linguists reject the view of essay writing service canada roedean school
the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, in its resolute and excessive form, there are many linguists who have adopted a middle-road view, which says thinking can be affected by language, but not necessarily. Scholarly critique London International Academy.
In fact, language and thought consist of a process that goes both ways. Language used by certain groups in society affects thinking, for example, the particular usage of essay writing for mba princeton academy
Ebonics. Also, thinking can be affected by the particular language usage created by "social pressure," such as in the case of speech used in an academic setting versus speech used with a child.
LAYNE JACOBS- Grow, Gerald. how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy.
Serving the Strategic Reader: Cognitive Reading Theory and its Implications for short journal articles abingdon school
the Teaching of Writing.
Serving the Strategic Reader.
"Reading is thinking stimulated by print." That quote from Joseph L. Vaughn is the point of Gerald Growâ€™s article â€śServing the how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy,
Strategic Reader: Cognitive Reading Theory and its Implications for the Teaching of Writing.â€ť People do not read passively, that is they do not just accept information as information alone. The old model of sender encodes and transmits a message, and the how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy,
reader decodes the message and interprets is outdated. People are understood to be intrinsically active in their reading. They choose what to read, choose how to read, they skip and how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy
skim. But more importantly, their participation extends to interpretation People construct for themselves the how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy,
world in which they live. Everyone has a model for their world, and when they read, they actively seek out information that will create, confirm, and modify the model they have established. The reader gives the interpretation, not the writer.
While it may see from this that readers draw any conclusion from writing they want, the fact is that information can be organized to maximize consistent response. Here is where creativity and an understanding of essay writing service canada roedean school
cognitive processes becomes useful for writers and teachers. Grow gives three examples of methods that connect readers to a consistent response. Text patterns: prose occurs in recurring organizational patterns of text that may contain one major element plus supporting information, a description of a sequence, or a comparison of two or more elements. Our minds detect these patterns with â€śsignal words,â€ť such as â€śin contrast, like, similar, resemble, share, have in common.â€ť Another method: frames. A frame is â€śa representation intended to how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy
guide the process of thought, supporting, organizing, and how to write a good essay in college abingdon school
catalyzing that process.â€ť Textbooks use frames. When they introduce new information they often include a graphical box to orient readers. Another method: considerate text. Considerate text is well-written, well-organized, and essay writing service canada roedean school
signals the organization of its thought to the reader.
EMILY AKINS- Susanne K. Langer. how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy.
Language and Thought.
Language and Thought.
In this essay, Langer addresses the issue of how language separates humans from the animal kingdom and how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy
also discusses the differences between signs and symbols. Humans and animals all use signs, but signs are different from symbols and our use of symbols is what sends us on a "tangent that takes us far away from the mere biological cycle that animal generations accomplish." "Animal speech" doesn't have structure; it's just a response. Scholarly critique London International Academy.
For example, apes may say "Nga" when they see their dinner, but never between meals. They cannot talk about their meals - if they could, then they would have ideas and how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy
discussions just like men.
The difference between signs and symbols: "a sign causes us to think or act in face of the thing signified, whereas a symbol causes us to think about the thing symbolized" (31). It is our use of symbols that differentiates us from the animals. The symbols in our lives ("words, pictures, and memory images") can all combine and their collaborative meaning creates a "kaleidoscope of ideas" that we call "stream of thought" (32). In fact symbols are so much a part of our lives, it is an "organic need."
Among the other phenomena that come from our "conception process" and how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy
that set us apart from and above the animal kingdom, is the phenomenon of language, found always and essay writing for mba princeton academy
only in how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy
humans. Language is the how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy,
"most amazing achievement of the symbolistic human mind. Langer boldly states that without language, thought is impossible - even that "the birth of language is the dawn of humanity." It is what most distinctively and assuredly separates us from animals.
She disputes a psychologists' belief that language is simply an evolved, higher form of the grunts and expressions that animals use; their signs. But, the fact that language is based on scholarly critique london international academy,
symbols and not signs refutes this belief in the origin of language. We use it to form and keep ideas in our mind. Names are essential to language for that is how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy,
how the object is abstracted from its true being to a mere idea that recurs when the name is spoken. Writing scientific articles Lake Forest Academy.
Because signs don't refer to ideas but to writing scientific articles lake forest academy
actual situations, then the signs that animals use to communicate do not constitute a language. Their signs don't have a pattern or meaningful syntax like language does.
To further illustrate the difference between animals and humans, between symbols and signs:
RYAN LINE- McLaughlin, Tim. Artificial Memory: Mnemonic Writing in the New Media.
In our "normal" way of reading and recall, we rely on how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy,
books and printed materials to jog our memories and spark some sense of remembrance of writing scientific articles lake forest academy
a particular subject. We look at essay writing for mba princeton academy
pictures, read graphs and charts to better understand the ideas and concepts trying to be conveyed. "Why introduce a new way of reading a book, instead of the one that moves, like life, from beginning to end, from birth to death? The answer is simple: because any new way of writing informative essays edith cowan university
reading that goes against the matrix of essay writing service canada roedean school
time, which pulls us toward death, is a futile but honest effort to resist this inexorability of oneâ€™s fate, in literature at least, if not in short journal articles abingdon school
reality"- a quote by Milorad Pavic, used by the author of this article, that emphasizes the thrust of this particular writing. McLaughlin is introducing thoughts on how to write a good essay in college abingdon school,
why the hypertext alternative. Scholarly critique London International Academy.
Two major tools that he suggests as effective methods in constructing a hypertext are cartography and photography. Cartography is the writing informative essays edith cowan university,
map or layout of the text. This sets a standard for the particular text that allows a reader to dive into the subject without ending up lost in cyberspace. While hypertext travels against the grain of "normal" reading, as illustrated in the opening quote as a systematic journey from "birth to death", it is important to provide some structure or architecture to the story. Photographs are an how to write a rogerian essay Hebron Academy,
extremely productive tool in the gathering of knowledge. Through the use of scholarly critique london international academy
pictures, one can identify with the concepts of the subject at hand. As most Internet browsers are aware, you can click on a picture and essay writing for mba princeton academy
instantly enlarge the image. The use of pictures is highly recommended by McLaughlin.