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argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield

Great Britain is pay to write my essay windermere preparatory school historically a country of immigration. The kingdom’s colonialism has united different countries and argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield their cultures. Nowadays, expected life-opportunities attract immigrants from former colonies and all over the world. Since the early 1990s the number of immigrants coming to the UK is increasing (see Appendix B). In 2016, the UK had the second highest number of immigrants in the EU (see Appendix A). 13.5% of the UK population was foreign-born in 2015 (Vargas-Silva & Rienzo, 2017), representing a multi-cultural country and immigrants as an important part of the country. However, opposing implications are presented by media and politicians, nationally and pay to write my essay windermere preparatory school globally (Smith, 2016). Therefore, it is crucial to ask what Britishness means. Are immigrants perceived as British? What role does the media play in this context? Britishness is a flexible and dynamic concept. The understanding of Britishness differs, different definitions are applied. Britishness and understanding Britishness are influenced by several factors, such as social structure, history, culture and the media. Despite that, the concept is often used by politicians and the media as an exclusionary force (Smith, 2016). The media often present Britishness by showing everything that is argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield ‘supposed to be’ non-British. The following analysis will show that mainly immigrants, people of colour (POC) and argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield Muslims are in the focus of argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield, the discourse. Therefore, this essay will present how the media defines Britishness by reporting about non-Britishness and harvard essay writing neoma business school stereotypes. argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield! Firstly, the terms media, culture and Britishness will be described and discussed. Secondly, examples for stereotype-creation and stereotype-use in the media will be given and explained. Jary and Jary (2006) state that the mass media of communication are “the techniques and argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield institutions through which centralized providers broadcast or distribute information and other forms of symbolic communication to large, heterogeneous and geographically dispersed audiences” (para. English creative writing essays Northfield Mount Hermon! 1). argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield! Only books and writing the introduction of an essay simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas newspapers were representing the media in its early days. With further technological developments gramophones, radios, cinema, TV and video were added (ibid.). Ofcom (2015) states that the pay to write my essay windermere preparatory school importance of the newest medium, the additional courses with ca the windsor school internet, is growing. Furthermore, Ofcom (2015) found increased laptop usages for argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield media consumption, for example for watching TV. Jary and Jary (2006) state that today the writing the introduction of an essay simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas mass media have importance for social systems in every society: “They are often large-scale organizations whose ownership is concentrated in the hands of the state or in the hands of a relatively small number of how to write an essay proposal example d'overbroeck's college, proprietors and argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield shareholders, often with financial interests in several media. [. Pay to write my essay Windermere Preparatory School! ] Critics, however, argue that the media do not operate simply as neutral channels of communication, but are actors in the cultural and political process and structurally allied to the powerful on whose behalf they can sometimes be seen as engineering consent. I n reality, the influence of the mass media is complex and many-sided.” (para. argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield! 2) As the quote lines out, the media’s purpose can vary. Reasons can be found in the fact that the media are a sub-system of the economic system and mainly driven by one value: profit (Schimank, 2013). The media often use cultural values to draw profit or to support the argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield elites’ interests, without paying attention to consequences (van Dijk, 2014, p. 17). Thereby, interests of controlling actors, like power elites, can counteract the system’s driving value of profit. The media plays a crucial role for the social construction of reality in societies, as most information only becomes interesting for the public after being mentioned in the media (van Dijk, 2014, p. 17). Britishness can be understood as a part of the UK’s culture. Sandywell (2011) states that culture can be understood as. “[. ] autonomous ‘ways of life’ - collective social experience, normative relations and processes: the myths, symbols, rituals, values, beliefs and normative practices shared by a particular group, sub-group, community or society (for example, folk culture, popular culture, the practices of a specific cultus or subculture).” (para. 1) Cultural orientations are structures of interpretations which frame institutional structures of argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield, expectations on an evaluative, normative and cognitive way (Schimank, 2013, p.117ff.). Evaluative cultural orientations show actors what is desirable, normative cultural orientations what is moral and cognitive cultural orientations what is actually doable (ibid.). argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield! All those cultural orientations work together to reduce complexity in action-situations (ibid.). Cultural orientations emerge from collaborations of actions of interest- and influence-driven actors and are therefore flexible themselves and in their influence on actors (ibid.) As mentioned in the introduction, the concept of harvard essay writing neoma business school, Britishness and understanding Britishness differs. Therefore, the concept will be described as a clear definition is missing. Britishness in the media is often mentioned in a context of argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield, “good old times” (Modood & Salt, 2011, p.226f.). Though, it also touches topics like devolution, the UK’s role in Europe, immigration, globalisation and the white working-class feeling (ibid.). As much as Englishness, Britishness has systematic, largely unspoken, racial connotations as it refers to Whiteness (ibid., p.226f.). However, Britishness has not only to be understood as a negative connoted term, as it is used in both anti-multicultural and pay to write my essay windermere preparatory school pro-multicultural discourses (Modwood & Salt, 2011, p.226). It might be argued that Britishness refers to citizenship, while for example, Englishness refers to pay to write my essay windermere preparatory school ethnicity and race (ibid.). This becomes noticeable in immigrants who are born in England and reported to be seen and to see themselves as British, but not English (ibid.). Additionally, Englishness, Welshness, Irishness and Scottishness refer to national culture, while Britishness refers to culture which reaches out to additional courses with ca the windsor school English or British colonialized countries as well. After Poles, Indians were the second largest immigrants group in the UK in 2013, 9.5% and 9% respectively (Vargas-Silva & Rienzo, 2017). That shows that the British society is pay to write my essay windermere preparatory school not only characterised by writing the introduction of an essay simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas European immigrants but by immigrants from all over the world. However, a United Kingdom does not mean that an overarching culture is applied and that Britishness includes all British. How to write a comparing and contrasting essay Conestoga College! Especially the media is accounting for resulting racism by reporting negatively about non-European immigrants as major problem, invasion, national threat or illegal habitants (van Dijk, 2014, p. 22ff.). Britishness in the media is often referencing to group differences and stereotypes which reinforce demarcating white British-born people without migration background from others (like POC, immigrants and Muslims). Several sociological and psychological theories explain such social phenomena on a group level. The Intergroup Contact Theory (ICT) explains that categorisations, identifications and comparisons lead to in- and out-groups (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). While Britishness protects in-group members’ self-esteem, it simultaneously leads to stereotypes through categorisations and comparisons with out-groups (Tajfel et al., 1971). A (feeling of) belonging with the how to write an essay proposal example d'overbroeck's college in-group is established by identifications. Values of in-groups can be influenced by the media and support negative stereotypes and argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield prejudices (e.g. towards Afro-Americans, see Gormley, 2005). Though, stereotypes are changeable; but that takes time (Downing & Husband, 2005, p.39ff.). The latest stereotype for POC was ‘immigrants’ (Dowing & Husband, 2005, p.44f.). Nevertheless, stereotypes like this can be challenged, for argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield example by demographic developments towards multinationalism and argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield multiculturalism. How to write a comparing and contrasting essay Conestoga College! For example, the stereotypes that POC are always immigrants became weaker due to large numbers of British-born POC (ibid.). Individual’s expectations about english creative writing essays northfield mount hermon, being British and (subjectively perceived) national identity are shaped by pay to write my essay windermere preparatory school institutions like the education system, etc., but also by english creative writing essays northfield mount hermon journalistic presentations (Modood & Salt, 2011; Anderson, 1983). However, van Dijk (2014, p. 17ff.) states that the media is the main source of argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield, racism, stereotypes and prejudices in the public discourse. The following section will describe how the media present people who are not seen as British. argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield! Being non­British is described by argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield out-group membership. The media often connects being non-British with deviant behaviour, coloured skin, migration or asylum status and argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield Islam. Selected research about British and international media from argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield the 1960s to the presence will be presented to sketch a historical development of stereotypes about Britishness (and non-Britishness) in the media. Afterwards, implications are given and discussed. In the 1990s reports about POC were only argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield, one-sided, positive or negative (Downing & Husband, 2005, p.41f.). Hall and colleagues (1978) found that the British media highlighted street assaults by young black males in the 1970s. Downing and pay to write my essay windermere preparatory school Husband (2005) explain that the origins of this phenomenon goes back to the “long term decline of the British economy” (p.42), which led to large labour unrests and writing the introduction of an essay simon fraser university/fraser international college - navitas social militancy since the 1960s. In this context, powerful circles with media-access created stereotypes about Blacks like in the USA (p.42f.). Van Dijk (2015) analysed most frequently used words in headlines of additional courses with ca the windsor school, 5 British newspapers between 1981 and 1986. Police, Riot, Black and Race were the 4 most used words which gives implications to the newspaper-agendas’ focus in the 1980s. However, not only print media but also several Hollywood films from argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield the 1990s present out-group members like Africans or Africanism on an objectifying way to argumentation and persuasion essay The University of Sheffield the mainly white audience (Gromley, 2005, p.183ff.). How to write a comparing and contrasting essay Conestoga College! Objectifying footages include violence, as well as often body-focused and shocking scenes (ibid.). Additional courses with ca The Windsor School! In the analysed movies, POC were also labelled with physical or even violent behaviour while race-discourses are missing (ibid.). Ensuing, Peffley, Shields and Williams (1996) state that in the media being black is associated stronger with criminality than being white, which leads to how to write a comparing and contrasting essay conestoga college activations of racial stereotypes. After the terrorist attacks in New York September 2011 multiculturalism was attacked by the global political spectrum, as multiculturalism was used as the scapegoat of all social problems (Siapera, 2010, p.2).