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In 1800, over 200 crimes were punishable by death under the statutes known as the “Bloody Code.” [1] The block was used for political crimes, the www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, noose for most other felonies, but the stake was also in use, right up until 1790. The idea that horror corrupts was not known in the eighteenth century. www.essay-writing.com London International Academy? [2] It was not until the rise of scientific and psychological theory, that the social implications of public and violent executions were debated. How to write a good cause and effect essay Stanstead College? The ideas that linked class and poverty with crime kept capital punishment an integral part of punishment right up until the nineteenth century. As penal reformers such as John Howard and Sir Robert Peel emerged, they brought with them an alternative to the death penalty, and as such, began the abolition of www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, the Bloody Code. The eighteenth century saw a change in the article on books the university of kansas, nature of crime. How to write summary essay Conestoga College? As the www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, city of London expanded due to the large number of immigrants from rural communities, to the urban life of the metropolis, they brought with them their own ideas of how to write a good cause and effect essay stanstead college, what constituted crime and justice. In 1600, London numbered around 200,000 inhabitants, but by 1750, that figure had risen to about 700,000 [3] . The contemporaries who wrote about crime in England between the eighteenth century, and the beginning of how to write a good cause and effect essay stanstead college, the twentieth century perceived it as a primarily urban problem [4] . There was a belief that urban and rural crimes were markedly different. Urban societies were seen as impersonal, and that they prompted degeneracy and deviance, [5] despite this, there was a move to decline the use of the rural customs, such as Largesse. Largesse was used by the rural labourers to request money for the work they had done during the www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, harvest season. When put into an urban setting however, it is near impossible to draw the line between this and extortion [6] , a crime still punishable by death in the eighteenth century, and writing a grad school essay pomfret school into the nineteenth century. In the 1850’s, Lord Fortescue wrote of writing a grad school essay pomfret school, those who practiced Largesse: Numbers of sturdy beggars, particularly in summer, invade our farmhouses and cottages, and article on books the university of kansas in the www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, absence of the men extort money or provisions from www.essay-writing.com London International Academy the women who they find at home. www.essay-writing.com London International Academy? Indeed in this house I have for www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, some years kept at my own expense an assistant constable in the shape of a trusty labourer to repel the above class of visitors, some of whom when they have been saucy I have committed to Bridewell where they have almost invariably been recognised as old offenders. [7] Urban immigration led to crowding, which provided the opportunities for pickpockets and prostitutes. Critical thinking terms Oregon State University (INTO)? Shops provided for shoplifting, offices for problem solving techniques ics international community school, burglary and the overcrowding at entertainments led to affrays and assault, as well as industrial theft and embezzlement [8] . International immigration was also perceived to www.essay-writing.com London International Academy be a factor in not only a rise in crime rates, but also a rise in the different types of crime. Havelock Ellis attested “Like insanity, criminality flourishes among migrants. [9] ” Immigrant ghettos were associated with criminality, the Irish and Jewish especially, being associated with drink and petty theft. [10] The ghettos in which they converged were generally the poorest areas of www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, London , located in the East End . Theorists classed them as unacculturated with respect to morality and status, and susceptible to the lures of profit and notoriety [11] . Thus the places where they converged were seen as centres of crime. As crime rates were seen to rise, due to overpopulation and overcrowding it only follows that the Bloody Code would have come to the forefront of political analysis. V.A.C. Gatrell has argued that the Bloody Code did not collapse because of humanitarian sensibilities, but rather because, along with the increasing number of prosecutions, there were increasing numbers of www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, successful prosecutions. As such, it would simply be unacceptable to execute so many individuals. [12] The new policing played its part in the prosecution of more criminals. 1750-1900 saw a great increase in professionals employed to combat crime. Between September 1829, and www.essay-writing.com London International Academy May 1830, 3000 uniformed constables began their beat patrols with the Metropolitan Police. The new system helped not only to prevent crime, but made the capture of the criminal much more certain. www.essay-writing.com London International Academy? [13] Previously, the victims had undertaken the pursuit of offenders, and parish constables kept them. These constables were usually men assigned their turn to the job, and more often than not unwilling to perform. [14] As the urban metropolis of London grew during the eighteenth century, it saw the major developments and proposals of police reform. [15] In the how to write summary essay conestoga college, late 1700s Sir John Fielding drew up plans for a centralised police force in London, but they came to www.essay-writing.com London International Academy nothing until the abortive legislation of the 1780’s and the how to write summary essay conestoga college, Middlesex Justice Act of 1792. [16] Patrick Colquhoun was vital in the creation of writing a grad school essay pomfret school, a Thames Police Office at www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, Wapping, which was instrumental in the creation of an effective preventative police force. [17] The 1820’s saw writers for various London magazines hoping that a preventative police force and inescapable penalties would slow the www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, pace of critical thinking terms oregon state university (into), crime. [18] With this now effective police force, more offenders were being captured, and so, more offenders were being convicted. www.essay-writing.com London International Academy? With over 200 crimes punishable by death under the Bloody Code, this created an incredible number of people who were to suffer the death penalty. www.essay-writing.com London International Academy? This naturally led to critical thinking terms oregon state university (into) a re-evaluation of the practicality of this code, and www.essay-writing.com London International Academy thus a redevelopment of its statutes, but also explains why it came into such force during the eighteenth century. The Death penalty was supported by two very powerful factors. It was the last remnant of an old penal system [19] , which was slowly coming to an end. It had the power of an age-old tradition, something the nineteenth century Londoners did not want to lose. The second factor was public indignation. Although psychologists have labelled this indignation as a need for www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, members of society to www.essay-writing.com London International Academy scapegoat others for their own violent impulses [20] , it can still not be overlooked as a factor prevalent in the debate over the abolition of capital punishment. The reformers were met with indignation at the suggestion that a man should not be hanged for stealing to feed his starving family. It was believed that, should even one man be acquitted, the city would be overrun by property crime. [21] Until 1818, stealing goods worth five shillings from article on books the university of kansas a shop involved the death sentence. Despite this however, by 1861, only problem solving techniques ics international community school four crimes remained capital: murder, piracy, treason, and arson in Her Majesty’s dockyards [22] . The spirit of reform was in the air, and even turned up in unusual places. An excerpt from the end of how to write a good cause and effect essay stanstead college, 1849, in London ’s Punch magazine reads: It may seem astonishing that there should exist, in this nineteenth century, such a folly as that instanced in the following paragraph, extracted from the Boston [Lincolnshire, England] Herald:- “SUPERSTITION,-On Friday last a respectable looking female, afflicted with a wen in the neck, applied at Lincoln Castle, after the execution of WARD, for www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, leave to see the body, with a view of problem solving techniques ics international community school, curing her disease; the request was very properly refused.” It may, however, be questioned whether a man hanged is not as likely to remove a wen as to put an www.essay-writing.com London International Academy end to murder. The remedy has been long enough tried for the latter complaint, but without success. [23] Among the reformers who wished to www.essay-writing.com London International Academy put an end to the Bloody code were Bernard Mandeville and Henry Fielding. They argued that the executed became heroes in the opinion of the crowd. Mandeville wrote against the iniquities of Tyburn, „The day appointed by law for the thief’s shame is the day of glory in his own opinion“ [24] . In Gay’s The Beggars Opera , The Character of critical thinking terms oregon state university (into), Polly Peachum also illustrates this: . methinks I see him already in the critical thinking terms oregon state university (into), cart, sweeter and more lovely than the nosegay in his hand! – I hear the crowd extolling his resloution and intepidity! – What volleys of sighs are sent from the windows of Holborn, that so comely a youth should be brought to www.essay-writing.com London International Academy disgrace! – I see him at the tree. The whole circle are in www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, tears! – even butchers weep! – Jack Ketch himself hesitates to perform his duty, and would be glad to lose his fee, by www.essay-writing.com London International Academy a reprieve. [25] Although the glorification of the accused was a problem, the unruliness of writing a grad school essay pomfret school, the spectators did a lot to move the executions into a less public sphere, and from 1868 onward, after the passing of the Capital Punishment within Prisons Act , all executions were carried out behind prison walls, away from the public eye [26] . The technique of hanging was originally conceived of as an especially degrading means of death. The deterrent was meant to come from carrying out the executions in public. It was a means of critical thinking terms oregon state university (into), strangulation. The convicted criminal could live for several minutes dangling from the gallows, and his (or her) contortions were part of the deterrent, however it was hard to article on books the university of kansas know whether the spectators identified with the article on books the university of kansas, victim, or the www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, executioner. [27] The major lesson the gallows were meant to teach was the absolute authority of the law, but as the sentenced criminals were glorified, public execution had lost the power to www.essay-writing.com London International Academy frighten the spectators. [28] The growth of the press meant greater publicity for executions, which probably led to problem solving techniques ics international community school greater crowds attending them. www.essay-writing.com London International Academy? The authorities had lost control of the pillory and were losing control of „The Hanging Tree“ [29] . As such, reformers jumped on this as an opportunity to outline the www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, fact that capital punishment was no longer acting as a deterrent, and article on books the university of kansas so, as the nineteenth century dawned, the Bloody Code slowly came to an end. One of the main arguments put forward by the abolitionists was the fallability of human judgement. As the eighteenth century dawned into the nineteenth, juries became reulctant to convivt a criminal under the death penalty. Some claimed it outraged their sense of humanity and justice. Writing a grad school essay Pomfret School? [30] This is not to suggest however that this did not lessen society’s condemnation of www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, crimes. They felt just as strongly about the www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, nature of crime as did their forebears, however contemporary Londoners felt a constant fear that even the most careful of criminal courts could discover that it took its decision without all the relevant facts. [31] It would seem that often, the changes instituted at writing a grad school essay pomfret school, this time, were due less from a desire to humanise punishment, than from www.essay-writing.com London International Academy a desire to protect the upper classes from the social upheaval of www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, the lower classes due to brutal and www.essay-writing.com London International Academy unequal punishment. [32] The lack of convictions came not only from empathetic jurors however, but many of the victims did not prosecute to begin with, as they did not wish to be the cause of someone being executed. The reformers Sir Samuel Romilly, and Sir James Mackintosh used this as one of how to write a good cause and effect essay stanstead college, the principal reasons from bringing about the drastic reduction in the number of capital statutes in www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, existence in the Bloody Code: ‚Numerous and respectable witnesses’ testified to the 1819 Select Committee on Criminal Laws ‚that a great reluctance prevail[ed] to prosecute’ in some capital crimes and, unfortunately, this reluctance had had the effect of producing immunity to such a degree, that it may be considered as among the temptations to the commision of crimes.’ [33] Not only were juries loathe convicting, as were the victims, however, some were reducing the value of stolen property so as to reduce the charge against the argumentative essays williston northampton school, prisoner, and bring them out of range of capital punishment [34] . This forced prosecutors to think very seriously about the outcomes if they were to proceed with the critical thinking terms oregon state university (into), statutes. All developing moral sensibilities aside, perhaps the www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, most influential reasons for the diminishing of the Bloody Code, was the fact that alternatives were developing. Incarceration was the emerging norm, and the 1820’s saw a stress on restitution, rectitude and www.essay-writing.com London International Academy deterrence through this means. Writers in the 1830’s had faith that a depersonalised, but unvarying, system would somehow improve all people. [35] Many theorists regretted the lack of opportunity for remorse under capital punishment, especially those guilty of lesser crimes. [36] Life imprisonment was seen as sufficient retribution for more serious crimes. John Howard was a reformer who paved the how to write summary essay conestoga college, way for improvements in the prison system, which would not only deter, but give the offenders the opportunity to reflect on their evil ways and reform themselves. www.essay-writing.com London International Academy? [37] Michael Foucault expressed a desire to how to write summary essay conestoga college establish a disciplined society in which punishment came through the institutions who exercised their power and www.essay-writing.com London International Academy new forms of how to write summary essay conestoga college, knowledge. He claimed that the punishment in use, which may engender feelings of how to write summary essay conestoga college, revulsion, did not necessarily deter, and www.essay-writing.com London International Academy so, advised the article on books the university of kansas, development of prisons, asylums, barracks, factories and schools, which were all brought into fruition through forms of expert knowledge, such as medicine and psychiatry. [38] The end result of prison reform was coercion, class domination and a technical means to power. [39] While Sir William Meredith claimed that “none should be punished with death” and that if a man “who has privately picked a pocket of a handkerchief worth thirteen pence, is punished with the same severity, as if he had murdered a whole family of benefactors” it would only make him worse and more dangerous. [40] It was attested however, by William Eden, that prison sentences could also make offenders worse. Critical thinking terms Oregon State University (INTO)? [41] This was combated by yet more reform, resulting in the structure exemplified by the Gloucester Penitentiary, in which solitary confinement was the focus. [42] With the creation of the new prison system, more accurate records were kept, and thus, the idea of www.essay-writing.com London International Academy, a criminal record was introduced, which acted just as much as a deterrent as the death sentence ever had. [43] Therefore, the creation of an ordered prison system created not only a more humane alternative to the Capital Punishment, but also deterred, making it a valid counter to the statutes of the Bloody Code. The Bloody Code was originally made up of statutes that stemmed as far back as the Tudors and the Stuarts. As society changed, and with it, the nature of how to write summary essay conestoga college, crime, it became necessary to change the nature of punishment. With the emergence of new institutions, such as a preventative police force, there was a rise in successful convictions, which led to a rise in those punishable by death. The idea of writing a grad school essay pomfret school, killing so many people was simply humanitarianly impossible, and so, alternatives were developed to article on books the university of kansas deal with this. With the writing a grad school essay pomfret school, development of the prison system, the focus shifted from retribution to critical thinking terms oregon state university (into) reform. After almost a century of debate, in 1957, the Homicide Act made the distinction between what crimes were, or were not punishable by death [44] and finally, in 1965, after half a century of public education and persuasion, the death penalty was completely removed from the British statute. [45] Engel, Howard. Lord Hight Executioner: An Unashamed Look at Hangmen, Headsmen, and Their Kind , Robson Books: Great Britain , 1996. Ed. Blom-Cooper. The Hanging Question: Essays on the Death Penalty , Gerald Duckworth and Co: London 1969. Ellis, Havelock. www.essay-writing.com London International Academy? The Criminal. London, 1980. Linebaugh, Peter. The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century , Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 1992. Emsley, Clive. Crime and Society in critical thinking terms oregon state university (into), England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987. Gatrell, V.A.C. The Haning Tree . Oford University Press: Oxford, 1994. Ed. Palmegiano, E.M. Crime in Victorian Britain : An Annotated Bibliography from Nineteenth-Century British Magazines , Greenwood Press: Westport , United States of America , 1993. Eds. Kimber, Richard & Richardson, J.J. www.essay-writing.com London International Academy? Pressure Groups in Britain : A Reader , Aldine House: London , 1974. Morgan, R. www.essay-writing.com London International Academy? ‘Imprisonment: A Brief History, The Contemporary Scene, and Likely Prospects’ in The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, Oxford University Press: Oxford 2002. [1] Daiches, David. www.essay-writing.com London International Academy? „A Primitive Saction“ in The Hanging Question: Essays on the Death Penalty ed. Blom-Cooper, Louis. Gerald Duckworth and how to write summary essay conestoga college Co: London 1969, 39. [2] Engel, Howard. Lord Hight Executioner: An Unashamed Look at Hangmen, Headsmen, and Their Kind , Robson Books: Great Britain , 1996, 24. [3] Engel, Howard . Lord Hight Executioner , 1996, 39. [4] Emsley, Clive. Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987, 92. [7] Lord Fortescue. „Fortescue to Palmerston, 17 January 1853“ in how to write summary essay conestoga college, Emsley, Clive. Crime and problem solving techniques ics international community school Society in England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987, 100. [8] Emsley, Clive. Crime and Society, 1987, 104. [9] Ellis, Havelock. The Criminal. London, 1980, 297.