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Keywords Anticipatory Socialization; Desocialization; Mortification of Self; Paramount Reality; Resistance; Resocialization; Social Isolation; Socialization; Total Institution. Socialization refers to the process through which people become members of society, both by internalizing shared norms and values and learning to perform social roles (e.g. as workers, wives and friends). Socialization occurs in different settings and institutions such as the family, the education system and how to write an essay about poetry florida international university, the workplace. While socialization was once assumed to be a process primarily associated with childhood, there is reasonable consensus that it is a continuous, lifelong process that prepares people for the transitions they will make between one phase or stage of life and another. Although there is web courses online Colegio Montfort variation in how those transitions are defined or distinguished, there is consensus that change and adaptation is an ever-present characteristic of human development. At times people may experience resocialization. This occurs when, first, people are required to learn new norms and values associated with an unfamiliar social environment (such as when entering prison) or, second, they are required to relearn norms and values associated with their culture or context of web courses online Colegio Montfort, origin. They may have, at one point, left this context and science critical thinking fairmont private schools, are now re-entering (such as returning to civilian life after time in prison). Resocialization is often associated with total institutions, which are a distinct category of social organization characterized by bureaucratic regimentation and social isolation, as described originally by Erving Goffman in his book Asylums (1961). Goffman identified prisons, mental hospitals and web courses online Colegio Montfort, monasteries as examples of total institutions, and his insights have since been explored and expanded by web courses online Colegio Montfort a number of studies. Much of the insight into socialization is grounded in a symbolic interactionist tradition to the study of social life. This approach emphasizes that social life largely depends on a-g requirements list grier school, a shared sense of reality that defines how to act in particular social situations and how to interact with others in ways that make sense and contribute to social order. In the symbolic interactionist approach, social reality is not external to writing the perfect college admission essay windermere school, the individual, but is built up, or constructed, through interaction (e.g. gestures, conversations, symbols). Reality is therefore unstable, though dynamic; what is defined as real could shift at any moment and in this framework, successful interaction with others depends on the importance of the actor's ability to writing the perfect college admission essay windermere school, interpret the social world (Ritzer, 1992). Because socialization is ongoing throughout the life course, researchers have identified different forms of socialization. web courses online Colegio Montfort? First, primary association occurs within institutions such as the family, schools and the media. What are reviews Sevenoaks School? Such socialization can be both formal (through explicit rules) and informal (via coded messages and the "hidden curriculum" in which the values associated with a particular culture, such as capitalism, are embedded in the structure and a-g requirements list grier school, organization of education). Second, anticipatory socialization occurs when people take on the norms and values of a role they desire; such as when those learning a particular occupation (e.g. What are reviews Sevenoaks School? nursing) take on the role-set (the professional identity of nurses) they seek to occupy (Lurie, 1981). Similarly, the high school student who begins wearing college student-type clothes once he has been accepted to a university is engaging in anticipatory socialization (Henslin, 2004). Third, resocialization occurs when people learn a new set of behaviors, practices and attitudes associated with a new context (Henslin, 2004). This form of web courses online Colegio Montfort, resocialization could be associated with entering college, or even getting married. These forms of resocialization are largely informal and voluntary. Resocialization can also be formal, and involuntary, and writing the perfect college admission essay windermere school, in such cases is mostly associated with institutional settings, such as the workplace, or total institutions. The concept of total institution was developed by the sociologist Erving Goffman as a result of research he conducted at St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Washington D.C. while he was a visiting scientist at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland. The research was published as a book, Asylums in 1961. The hospital was a federal mental institution with more than 7000 patients and Goffman viewed it as a place that encompassed the web courses online Colegio Montfort whole of argumentative essay language rugby school, the lives of its inmates. Accordingly, he described a total institution as a specific type of place where: …a large number of like-situated individuals, cut off from web courses online Colegio Montfort wider society for an appreciable amount of time, together lead an argumentative essay language rugby school, enclosed, formally administered round of life (Goffman, 1961, p. xiii). Goffman identified several characteristics of total institutions and argued that they control all aspects of the daily lives of writing the perfect college admission essay windermere school, inmates, subject their residents to standardized activities, and apply formal rules and rigid scheduling to guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper thompson rivers university, all activities. In the total institution, inmates are separated from the outside world physically. For instance, total institutions are, in Goffman's definition, built environments that are segregated from everyday life through spatial barriers such as barbed wire and walls and interaction between inmates and people from the "outside" is physically prevented through devices such as locks and barred windows. What are reviews Sevenoaks School? Sutton's (2003) study of web courses online Colegio Montfort, missions and reserves in Australia, using photographs as evidence, shows how the argumentative essay language rugby school spatial and web courses online Colegio Montfort, physical design of such missions were similar to 19th century workhouses, prisons, concentration camps and mental institutions. These missions removed indigenous people from science critical thinking fairmont private schools public Australian life and played a role in writing the perfect college admission essay windermere school the colonial control of indigenous peoples by breaking up Aboriginal families. Moreover, the experience of separation and control within the missions made it difficult for what are reviews sevenoaks school, inmates to adjust to life outside and contributed to emotional disorders, an inability to live with others and make friends and increased the likelihood of argumentative essay language rugby school, illnesses such as diabetes and heart conditions (Sutton, 2003). Total institutions also socially separate inmates from the outside world, though there are points of potential contamination that can threaten this separation. For instance, messy quarters can remind the web courses online Colegio Montfort inmate of the world beyond the institution and when an web courses online Colegio Montfort, inmate loses control over who is observing her in the institution, or who knows about her past, she is contaminated by a forced relationship to these others. web courses online Colegio Montfort? Other interpersonal contaminations or forced relationships include rape, sexual assault, or when the inmate's possessions are handled by officials or other inmates. Thus, for Goffman, a key characteristic of the total institution is that there is always a tension between the institution and what are reviews sevenoaks school, the outside world and this tension is used "as strategic leverage in the management of a-g requirements list grier school, men" (Goffman, 1961, p. 13). The total institution controls the minute details of web courses online Colegio Montfort, the inmate's life, and staff expect the inmates to argumentative essay language rugby school, be obedient to them. What are reviews Sevenoaks School? Inmates occupy a routinized lifestyle where meals, recreation, work and bedtimes are all tightly scheduled and uniforms may be required (such as in prisons, boarding schools or the military). Indeed, in total institutions, people are processed as things or objects whereas, in contrast, on the "outside," people are typically identified through personal characteristics and qualities (Sparks, Bottoms & Hay, 1996). How to write an essay about poetry Florida International University? These detailed rules and web courses online Colegio Montfort, repetitive routines enable the institution to web courses online Colegio Montfort, establish control and authority over the lives of inmates and ensure a power differential between those in charge and subordinates. Thus, a key goal of resocialization within. (The entire section is 3931 words.) Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more.