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articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School

In the face of Monopsony employers, Trades Unions can increase wages and increase employment. Traditionally, monopsonies occur when there is only firm in a town or type of employment. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! However, in modern economies, many employers have a degree of articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School monopsony power - related to difficulties of moving between jobs. From the late 1890s to 1980s, the UK saw a growth in trade union membership. This was also a period of falling inequality and a reduction in relative poverty. Since trade union membership peaked in the early 1980s, this trend of reduced inequality has been reversed and inequality has increased. It is also argued that if unions are very powerful and disruptive, it can discourage firms from investing and creating employment in the jobs. If firms fear frequent strikes and a non-cooperative union, they may prefer to invest in another country with better labour relations. For example, in the 1970s, the UK experienced widespread industrial unrest and this is articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School cited as a factor behind the UK's relative decline. Economic growth can help various macroeconomic objectives. Reduction in articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, poverty . Increased national output means households can enjoy more goods and articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School services. Critical thinking bias Chigwell School! For countries with significant levels of poverty, economic growth can enable vastly improved living standards. For example, in the nineteenth century, absolute poverty was widespread in Europe, a century of economic growth has lifted nearly everyone out of this state of poverty. Critical thinking bias Chigwell School! Economic growth is particularly important in academic peer reviewed journal articles stanstead college, developing economies. Reduced Unemployment . A stagnant economy leads to higher rates of write my essay for cheap bosworth independent college unemployment and the consequent social misery. Economic growth leads to higher demand and firms are likely to increase employment. Articles European University Cyprus! Improved public services . Higher economic growth leads to higher tax revenues (even with tax rates staying the same). With higher growth, incomes and profit, the government will receive more income tax, corporation tax and expenditure taxes. The government can then spend more on public services. Reduced debt to GDP ratios . Economic growth helps reduce debt to GDP ratios. In the 1950s, the UK had a national debt of articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School over 200% of GDP. Despite very few years of budget surplus, economic growth enabled a reduction in the level of debt to GDP. Countries with positive rates of economic growth will create a virtuous cycle Economic growth will encourage inward investment as firms seek to benefit from write my essay for cheap bosworth independent college, rising demand Higher growth leads to improved tax revenues which can be spent on long-term public sector works, such as improved transport and articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School communication. This helps long-term growth. Confidence to invest. Higher growth encourages firms to take risks - innovate and invest in future products and productive capacity. Inequality and distribution . Economic growth doesn't necessarily reduce relative poverty, it depends on persuasive essay help chelsea independent college, the distribution of incomes. Write my essay for cheap Bosworth Independent College! Economic growth could bypass the poorest in society. For example in the 1980s, the articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School Gini coefficient rose sharply - the critical thinking attributes wrekin college richest 1% gained dis proportionality more. Negative externalities . Economic growth can cause negative externalities such as pollution, higher crime rates and congestion which actually reduce living standards. For example, China has experienced very rapid economic growth but is now experience very serious levels of critical thinking bias chigwell school air pollution in major cities. Economic growth may conflict with the environment . e.g. increased carbon production is leading to global warming. Economic growth may bring benefits in the short-term, but costs in the long-term. It depends on what is produced . The Soviet Union has fantastic rates of economic growth, but, often through producing a lot of steel and pig iron that was not actually very useful. Economic growth can be unsustainable . If growth is too rapid, it will cause inflation, current account deficit and articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School can lead to boom and bust. Does happiness actually increase? Theories of hedonistic relativism suggest (beyond a certain level) increasing output has no effect on changing life quality or happiness. One reason is that increasing the money supply has no effect on reducing interest rates. Inelastic demand for investment. In a liquidity trap, firms are not tempted by california a-g requirements l’institut superieur des arts appliques (lisaa), lower interest rates. The marginal efficiency of capital indicates the rate of persuasive essay help chelsea independent college return from articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, investment. Usually, lower interest rates make it more profitable to borrow and invest. However, in a recession, firms don't want to invest because they expect low demand. Therefore, even though it may be cheap to borrow - they don't want to risk making investment. Expectations of articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School deflation . If there is deflation or people expect deflation (fall in prices) then real interest rates can be quite high even if nominal interest rates are zero. - If prices are falling 2% a year, then keeping cash under your mattress means your money will increase in value. The difficulty is in having negative nominal interest rates (banks would be paying you to borrow money). (There have been attempts to create a negative interest rates (e.g. destroy money in circulation but in practice, it is rarely implemented.) Preference for saving . Liquidity traps occur during periods of recessions and a gloomy economic outlook. Critical thinking attributes Wrekin College! Consumers, firms and banks are pessimistic about the future, so they look to articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, increase their precautionary savings and it is difficult to get them to spend. This rise in the savings ratio means spending falls. Also, in recessions banks are much more reluctant to lend. Also, cutting the base rate to 0% may not translate into lower commercial bank lending rates as banks just don't want to lend. Credit Crunch. Banks lost significant sums of money in buying sub-prime debt which defaulted. Therefore, they are seeking to improve their balance sheets. They are reluctant to persuasive essay help chelsea independent college, lend so even if firms and consumers want to take advantage of low-interest rates, banks won't lend them the money. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! Unwillingness to hold bonds . If interest rates are zero, investors will expect interest rates to rise sometime. If interest rates rise, the price of bonds falls (see: inverse relationship between bond yields and critical thinking attributes wrekin college bond prices) Therefore, investors would rather keep cash savings than hold bonds. Banks don't pass base rate cuts onto consumers. Quantitative Easing - policy to create money and reduce yields on government and corporate bonds Helicopter money - more direct than quantitative easing as rather than buying assets from banks, the california a-g requirements l’institut superieur des arts appliques (lisaa) money is given directly to the people. Expansionary Fiscal Policy - Keynes argued in critical thinking attributes wrekin college, a liquidity trap, it is necessary for a government to pursue direct investment in the economy. For example, building public work schemes has the effect of articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School creating demand and getting unused resources back into the circular flow. Overcoming a Liquidity trap Higher Inflation Expectations Liquidity Trap and Fiscal Policy Liquidity explained. Cost of borrowing is more expensive. If borrowing is more expensive consumers will take out fewer loans. Firms will borrow less. Therefore consumer spending and investment will fall (or increase at slower rates) Mortgage and loan repayments increase. This reduces consumer disposable income and articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School consumer spending further. Return on savings increase. More attractive to save and this will reduce consumer spending Higher interest rates cause an appreciation in the exchange rate due to hot money flows. (It is more attractive to write my essay for cheap bosworth independent college, save in the UK, if UK interest rates are higher than other countries) An appreciation in the exchange rate makes more expensive, leading to less export demand Fall in asset prices. Higher interest rates can make it less attractive to buy a house with a mortgage leading to lower house prices. California a-g requirements L’Institut Superieur des Arts Appliques (LISAA)! ------------------------ If consumer spending and articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School investment falls, this will lead to critical thinking attributes wrekin college, lower AD. Therefore this causes a fall in articles european university cyprus, Real GDP or at least a fall in the rate of economic growth. Lower growth will tend to increase unemployment. With less output, firms demand less workers. Lower growth will also help to reduce inflation. --------- In Credit Crunch of 2008, lower interest rates failed to boost economic growth. Inflation target of 2%. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! But Bank has to consider other objectives such as economic growth and inflation. Critical thinking attributes Wrekin College! It also has to consider the type of inflation. Is it temporary cost-push inflation or underlying inflationary pressures. Is the economy reaching full capacity? Graph showing combination of articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School high inflation and volatile output. The Bank of England deregulated the mortgage market - meaning High Street Banks could now lend mortgages (not just local building societies). This helped fuel a rise in house prices and consumer wealth. Barber Boom of 1972. In the 1972 budget, the critical thinking bias chigwell school chancellor Anthony Barber made a dash for growth - with large tax cuts against a backdrop of high economic growth. Growth of Credit. It was in the 1970s, we saw the first mass use of credit cards (Access). This helped create a consumer bubble. Rising wages, partly due to articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, strength of california a-g requirements l’institut superieur des arts appliques (lisaa) unions. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! The inflationary budget of 1972. Growth in credit and consumer spending. Oil price shock of 1973, leading to write my essay for cheap bosworth independent college, 70% increase in oil prices. Oil Prices in the 1970s. blue line - nominal oil prices Yellow line - Real oil prices, adjusted for inflation. Since oil had become an intrinsic part of the economy, we had taken it for granted that oil could be bought cheaply. The 1960s and early 1970s, saw a rapid rise in ownership of cars and motoring. Britain enthusiastically embraced the motor car - helped by rising incomes and cheap petrol. In the mid 1970s, the UK saw a deterioration in the current account. High UK inflation was making UK goods less competitive. Also domestic consumer spending remained relatively strong - sucking in more imports. Although the articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School current account reached a peak of only 4% of articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School GDP in late 1974, (low compared to current account in 2000s) there were greater concerns about articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, financing the critical thinking attributes wrekin college current account deficit in articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, the 1970s due to critical thinking attributes wrekin college, less investment income. Due to rise in GDP, total public sector debt fell from articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, approx 60% of critical thinking bias chigwell school GDP (1970) to articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, 50% in 1980 (see: National debt. What to produce? - Is it worth spending more on california a-g requirements l’institut superieur des arts appliques (lisaa), health care? How to produce? - Should we leave it to market forces or implement government regulations. For whom to produce? - How should we distribute resources, should we place higher income tax on the wealthiest in society? However, the problem is that economists may often disagree on the best solution to these challenges. For example, at the start of articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School the great depression in 1930, leading economists in the UK Treasury suggested that the UK needed to balance the write my essay for cheap bosworth independent college budget; i.e. higher taxes, lower unemployment benefits. But, this made the recession deeper and led to a fall in demand. The over production of negative externalities (e.g. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! pollution/congestion) The underproduction of goods with positive externalities (e.g. education, health care, public transport). Write my essay for cheap Bosworth Independent College! Non-provision of Public Goods - (national defence, law and order) In recent years, behavioural economics has looked at the diverse range of factors that influence people's decisions. For example, behavioural economists have noted that individuals can exhibit present-bias focus. Critical thinking attributes Wrekin College! This means placing excess importance on the current time period and making decisions our future self may regret. This includes over-consumption of demerit goods like alcohol and tobacco and failure to save for a pension. A run on the pound is more likely in a semi fixed exchange rate. Academic peer reviewed journal articles Stanstead College! e.g. when the Government is committed to persuasive essay help chelsea independent college, trying to keep the persuasive essay help chelsea independent college Pound at a certain level. If markets feel this level is articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School unsustainable they may keep selling Pounds until the government is articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School forced to write my essay for cheap bosworth independent college, devalue. For example, in 1992, the UK tried to maintain value of Sterling in articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, ERM, but, ultimately markets forced the write my essay for cheap bosworth independent college UK out and we had to devalue. The graph above shows the near 20% devaluation in 1992. We also had a run on the pound in the late 60s, causing the Wilson government to devalue pound. (In 1967, Wilson devalued pound by 15% after selling many foreign currency reserves trying to maintain value of Pound) In 1976, there was another on the Pound as markets feared the UK's fiscal position. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! Financial crisis depreciation. Persuasive essay help Chelsea Independent College! The credit crunch of 2008 hit the critical thinking bias chigwell school UK economy hard because it was more reliant on articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, the financial sector than most other economies. High inflation - high inflation reduces the value of Pound Sterling. Foreign investors will be nervous of holding UK assets if the UK has high inflation. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! Threat of sovereign debt default . If markets feel government borrowing is persuasive essay help chelsea independent college too high and unsustainable then there is a risk of foreigners losing their government bonds. Therefore, the market will sell bonds causing an outflow of foreign currency and fall in value of persuasive essay help chelsea independent college sterling. This can build up a momentum effect. Persuasive essay help Chelsea Independent College! As the fall in the currency can alarm other investors. Large current account deficit. A large current account deficit implies we rely on articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, capital flows to finance the current account deficit. Therefore, the UK would be more vulnerable to capital flight. In this circumstance a run on the Pound would be stronger. However, the UK has run a persistent current account deficit since the 1980s. (See: Current account deficit) Interest rates can influence the rate of inflation and the rate of economic growth. The Bank of England change the 'base' interest rate to try and articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School target the government's inflation rate of 2% +/-1 Generally, an critical thinking attributes wrekin college, increase in inflation leads to higher interest rates. A fall in the inflation rate and lower growth leads to lower interest rates. Graph Showing Inflation and Interest Rates in the UK. Typically, nominal interest rates are 1 - 2 % higher than inflation. When interest rates are higher than inflation, it means savers are protected against the effects of inflation. However, in 2008 and 2011, we had a period of negative real interest rates. This meant the inflation rate was higher than the base rate. A negative real interest rate is bad news for academic peer reviewed journal articles stanstead college, savers, but good news for borrowers. Response to Rising Inflation. If inflation rises, generally, the Bank of England increases interest rates to reduce inflationary pressure. Higher interest rates tend to reduce consumer spending. This is because homeowners see an increase in the cost of their mortgage payments and persuasive essay help chelsea independent college have less disposable income. Therefore, they spend less. Also, higher interest rates increase the incentive to save and reduce the incentive to borrow. Therefore, an articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, increase in interest rates tends to articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, reduce the rate of economic growth and prevent inflationary pressures. See more on: Effects of Higher interest rates on economy Response to Fall in Inflation Rate. Lower interest rates increase motivation to borrow Lower interest rates mean cheaper mortgage payments and articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School increase disposable income. Why A Cut in write my essay for cheap bosworth independent college, Interest Rates May Not Work. The recession was so sharp that investment and consumption have fallen dramatically and so the cuts in interest rates have only mitigated the extent of the downturn House Price falls provide a powerful negative impact on spending. Lower interest rates should boost spending. But, with house prices falling 20% since the peak, this has reduced consumer wealth and california a-g requirements l’institut superieur des arts appliques (lisaa) therefore reduced spending. Global downturn. Even sharp depreciation has been unable to boost export growth because of articles european university cyprus the extent of the economic downturn. Persuasive essay help Chelsea Independent College! Time Lags. A cut in interest rates can take a long time to have an effect. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! For example, people with a two-year fixed rate mortgage won't notice for write my essay for cheap bosworth independent college, quite a long time. (until they re-mortgage. Also, commercial banks may be reluctant to articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, pass the academic peer reviewed journal articles stanstead college interest rate cut onto articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School consumers. In some circumstances, the Central Bank may not increase interest rates, despite an increase in persuasive essay help chelsea independent college, inflation. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! For example, in california a-g requirements l’institut superieur des arts appliques (lisaa), 2008 and 2011, we had a rise in inflation to 5%, but, the Central Bank kept interest rates low. Why? They kept interest rates low because: They felt inflation was just due to temporary cost-push factors like higher taxes and volatile food prices increasing They felt economy was at persuasive essay help chelsea independent college, risk of inflation. Therefore, it was more important to tolerate a temporarily higher inflation rate, than increase interest rates and push the economy back into recession. Related. In October 1990, the UK made the decision to join the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) The ERM was a semi-fixed exchange rate mechanism. The value of the Pound was supposed to be kept at a certain level against the DM. £1 = DM2.95. The lower limit for the exchange rate was DM 2.773. If the Pound approached this level, the government would be obliged to intervene - through buying Pounds and raising interest rates. The exchange rate mechanism was designed as a precursor to joining the Euro. The aim was to keep exchange rates stable; it was hoped this would: Keep inflation low Provide stability for exporters encouraging trade Enable countries to join the single currency - the Euro. In the late 1980s, the chancellor, Nigel Lawson was keen to join the ERM. But, Mrs Thatcher with her more euro-sceptic views wanted to stay out. The late 1980s saw an extraordinary economic boom - boosted by booming house prices, tax cuts and low interest rates. Growth reached record levels of 4-5% a year. Enthusiastic government ministers talked of an economic miracle - hoping Government policies had enabled, at long last, to catch up with other countries like Germany. However, this miracle was an illusion. Critical thinking attributes Wrekin College! High growth was unsustainable and led to inflation.(see: Lawson Boom) With inflation of 10%, Nigel Lawson was able to convince Mrs Thatcher that the UK would benefit from joining the ERM to help reduce inflation. Therefore, the UK joined in October 1990. at a rate of DM 2.95 to the Pound. Increasing interest rates - this attracts hot money flows - it is more attractive to articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, save in UK with high interest rates. Buying pounds with foreign exchange reserves. However, these policies of protecting the value of the Pound was causing a serious economic downturn. California a-g requirements L’Institut Superieur des Arts Appliques (LISAA)! High interest rates particularly hit the housing market. With rising house prices, many had taken out articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, large mortgages to get on the property ladder. But, now interest rates were increasing, mortgage repayments became unaffordable and default rates increased. Combined with rising unemployment from the recession, the housing market saw a dramatic fall in articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, prices that was to last 4 years. It was increasingly clear to the financial markets that the california a-g requirements l’institut superieur des arts appliques (lisaa) Pound was overvalued. The government was exhausting its foreign currency reserves in buying pounds. But, more problematically, the articles european university cyprus high interest rates was causing a serious recession and misery for homeowners. For a long time, the British government fought a losing battle. But, the foreign currency reserves of persuasive essay help chelsea independent college the British government were no match for the trillions of Pound Sterling traded on the foreign currency and the pound kept sliding. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! It is estimated that the Treasury used £27 billion of foreign currency reserves trying to prop up the Pound. The Treasury estimated the final cost to articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, the taxpayer was estimated at £3.4 billion. An overvalued currency can lead to lower economic growth, due to uncompetitive exports. Trying to keep currency at a level which is too high, may require high real interest rates - which can cause economic downturn. It is hard to buck the persuasive essay help chelsea independent college market. Even government intervention on foreign currency markets is not sufficient to prevent depreciation if this is what reflects market fundamentals. Persuasive essay help Chelsea Independent College! A devaluation of the currency can be beneficial for the economy - under certain circumstances. This devaluation did not cause significant inflation, because the economy was depressed. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! Related. European harmony - European Union countries are no longer at loggerheads like they were in the past. With the exception of civil war in articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, Yugoslavia (which wasn't in the EU at the time), Europe has managed to heal the divisions which were so painfully exposed in the two World Wars in the Twentieth Century. The EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in critical thinking bias chigwell school, 2012 for helping to promote peace and international co-operation. Many Eastern European countries are keen to articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, join the EU because they feel it will help promote economic and political stability. Legal and human rights. Critical thinking bias Chigwell School! The EU has a strong commitment to articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, human rights, preventing discrimination and the due process of law. This makes the EU attractive to countries, such as the Ukraine who wish to share in similar legal and human rights. Prospect of membership has helped modernise countries, such as Turkey. The Copenhagen Criteria for critical thinking bias chigwell school, EU membership enshrine a commitment to human rights, the rule of law and articles european university cyprus a market economy. The prospect of california a-g requirements l’institut superieur des arts appliques (lisaa) gaining membership of the EU, encourage countries to implement human rights legislation. Economic benefits. EU is one of strongest economic areas in the world. With 500 million people, it has 7.3% of the world's population but accounts for 23% of nominal global GDP. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! Free trade and removal of non-tariff barriers have helped reduce costs and prices for consumers. Increased trade with the EU creates jobs and higher income. Over 52% of UK exports are to the EU. California a-g requirements L’Institut Superieur des Arts Appliques (LISAA)! Trade within the EU has increased 30% since 1992. According to one study - over ten years (1993-2003), the Single Market has boosted the EU’s GDP by €877 billion [£588 billion]. This represents €5,700 [£3,819] of extra income per household. A paper, Campos, Coricelli, and Moretti (2014) used the synthetic counterfactuals method (SCM) pioneered by Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003). The red dotted line shows estimated GDP if the country had not been a member of the EU. This shows that even more prosperous EU countries, such as the UK have benefited from higher GDP as a result of being in the EU. Free movement of articles european university cyprus labour and articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School capital have helped create a more flexible economy. For example, UK and Ireland have benefited from the immigration of Eastern European workers to fill labour market shortages in articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, certain areas, such as plumbing, nursing and cleaning. Far from 'taking jobs', migration has helped increase productive capacity and articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School makes a net contribution to critical thinking bias chigwell school, tax revenues. (see impact of net migration) Free movement of articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School labour also enables British people to live and work in Europe. Roughly 1.6 million British citizens live in the EU outside the UK ( UNCTAD World Investment Report 2010 ) EU migrants are net contributors to UK Treasury. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! EU migrants tend to be young. Therefore they pay taxes, but use a relatively small share of the NHS and pensions. See: Fiscal effects of immigration. Critical thinking attributes Wrekin College! Net migration has helped deal with the UK's demographic timebomb. EU has enabled people to travel freely across national boundaries making trade and tourism easier and cheaper. Critical thinking bias Chigwell School! According to the European Commission, more than 15 million EU citizens have moved to persuasive essay help chelsea independent college, other EU countries to work or to enjoy their retirement. 1.5 million young people have completed part of their studies in another member state with the help of the Erasmus programme. The possibility to articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, study abroad is considered positive by 84% of EU citizens. (benefits of EU) Easier to articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, use qualifications in different member countries. This makes it easier to work abroad without having to retrain in different national qualifications. Mutual recognition of safety standards and rules have helped reduce costs for persuasive essay help chelsea independent college, firms. articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School! This has encouraged the development of small and medium business who rely on the low cost of articles european university cyprus exports. Social charter enshrines protection for workers such as a maximum working week, right to collective bargaining and fair pay for articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, employment. European Arrest Warrant (EAW) scheme has made it easier to track criminals across the European continent. Environmental benefits of the EU. The EU has raised the quality of sea water and beeches, by implementing regulations on water standards 'Bathing Water Directive'. 92% of tourist locations now meet minimum water quality standards. (Clean water at Europa.eu) Tackling global warming. In 2006, the (EU) committed to reducing its global warming emissions by at least 20 percent of 1990 levels by articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, 2020. The EU has also committed to spending $375 billion a year to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 percent by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. (global warmingpdf) Tackling acid rain. Environmental treaties which have sought to deal with European wide environmental problems such as acid rain. The EU has set strict restrictions on emissions of pollutants, such as sulphur , and write my essay for cheap bosworth independent college other causes of acid rain. (BBC Link) Consumer benefits of the EU. EU competition policy has harmonised regulation of monopoly and cartel power within Europe. The EU competition policy seeks to avoid abuses of cartels / monopoly / dominant market power and protect the interest of the consumer. There has been successful deregulation of airlines, electricity and gas markets. The EU has reduced the critical thinking bias chigwell school price of making mobile phone calls abroad. In 2007 EU legislation set maximum charges for articles to write about for school Monkton Combe School, making and receiving calls. The EU also agreed with 14 mobile phone manufacturers to create a standard design for chargers from 2011 in order to make life easier for consumers and reduce wastage. In 2014, it is has voted to scrap roaming charges which will drastically reduce the california a-g requirements l’institut superieur des arts appliques (lisaa) cost of using a mobile phone abroad. (BBC link) Consumers are free to shop in any EU countries without paying any tariffs or excise duties when they return home. So what have the critical thinking bias chigwell school EU ever done for us, apart from straightening all those pesky bananas?