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rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School

In 1800, over 200 crimes were punishable by death under the statutes known as the “Bloody Code.” [1] The block was used for political crimes, the noose for most other felonies, but the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, stake was also in argumentative conclusion bromsgrove international school thailand use, right up until 1790. The idea that horror corrupts was not known in the eighteenth century. [2] It was not until the rise of scientific and how to write a convincing essay the windsor school, psychological theory, that the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, social implications of public and violent executions were debated. The ideas that linked class and poverty with crime kept capital punishment an integral part of punishment right up until the nineteenth century. As penal reformers such as John Howard and Sir Robert Peel emerged, they brought with them an alternative to how to write a convincing essay the windsor school, the death penalty, and as such, began the abolition of the Bloody Code. The eighteenth century saw a change in the nature of crime. As the city of London expanded due to the large number of immigrants from rural communities, to the urban life of the metropolis, they brought with them their own ideas of what constituted crime and justice. In 1600, London numbered around 200,000 inhabitants, but by rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School 1750, that figure had risen to about 700,000 [3] . The contemporaries who wrote about crime in England between the argumentative conclusion bromsgrove international school thailand, eighteenth century, and the beginning of the twentieth century perceived it as a primarily urban problem [4] . There was a belief that urban and rural crimes were markedly different. Urban societies were seen as impersonal, and that they prompted degeneracy and deviance, [5] despite this, there was a move to decline the use of the rural customs, such as Largesse. Largesse was used by the rural labourers to request money for the work they had done during the harvest season. When put into an urban setting however, it is near impossible to draw the line between this and extortion [6] , a crime still punishable by death in rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School the eighteenth century, and into the nineteenth century. Write me essay American University Washington? In the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, 1850’s, Lord Fortescue wrote of those who practiced Largesse: Numbers of sturdy beggars, particularly in summer, invade our farmhouses and cottages, and california a-g requirements tasis (the american school inswitzerland), in the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, absence of the men extort money or provisions from the women who they find at home. rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School? Indeed in how to write a convincing essay the windsor school this house I have for some years kept at scientific article writing chelsea independent college my own expense an assistant constable in the shape of a trusty labourer to repel the above class of visitors, some of whom when they have been saucy I have committed to Bridewell where they have almost invariably been recognised as old offenders. [7] Urban immigration led to how to write an essay conclusion lucton school, crowding, which provided the opportunities for pickpockets and prostitutes. Shops provided for shoplifting, offices for burglary and the overcrowding at entertainments led to affrays and assault, as well as industrial theft and embezzlement [8] . International immigration was also perceived to be a factor in not only rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, a rise in crime rates, but also a rise in the different types of crime. Havelock Ellis attested “Like insanity, criminality flourishes among migrants. [9] ” Immigrant ghettos were associated with criminality, the Irish and Jewish especially, being associated with drink and rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, petty theft. [10] The ghettos in rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School which they converged were generally the poorest areas of London , located in scientific article writing chelsea independent college the East End . Theorists classed them as unacculturated with respect to morality and status, and susceptible to the lures of how to write an essay conclusion lucton school, profit and notoriety [11] . Write me essay American University Washington? Thus the places where they converged were seen as centres of crime. As crime rates were seen to how to write an analysis of an article ardingly college, rise, due to overpopulation and overcrowding it only follows that the Bloody Code would have come to the forefront of how to write a convincing essay the windsor school, political analysis. V.A.C. Gatrell has argued that the Bloody Code did not collapse because of humanitarian sensibilities, but rather because, along with the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, increasing number of prosecutions, there were increasing numbers of successful prosecutions. As such, it would simply be unacceptable to execute so many individuals. [12] The new policing played its part in rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School the prosecution of more criminals. 1750-1900 saw a great increase in professionals employed to combat crime. Between September 1829, and May 1830, 3000 uniformed constables began their beat patrols with the Metropolitan Police. The new system helped not only to prevent crime, but made the capture of the criminal much more certain. [13] Previously, the victims had undertaken the pursuit of offenders, and parish constables kept them. These constables were usually men assigned their turn to rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, the job, and how to write an essay conclusion lucton school, more often than not unwilling to rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, perform. [14] As the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, urban metropolis of London grew during the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, eighteenth century, it saw the major developments and proposals of police reform. [15] In the late 1700s Sir John Fielding drew up plans for a centralised police force in London, but they came to nothing until the how to write an analysis of an article ardingly college, abortive legislation of the 1780’s and the Middlesex Justice Act of 1792. [16] Patrick Colquhoun was vital in the creation of a Thames Police Office at Wapping, which was instrumental in the creation of an effective preventative police force. [17] The 1820’s saw writers for various London magazines hoping that a preventative police force and how to write an analysis of an article ardingly college, inescapable penalties would slow the pace of crime. [18] With this now effective police force, more offenders were being captured, and california a-g requirements tasis (the american school inswitzerland), so, more offenders were being convicted. With over 200 crimes punishable by death under the Bloody Code, this created an incredible number of people who were to rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, suffer the death penalty. This naturally led to a re-evaluation of the practicality of this code, and thus a redevelopment of scientific article writing chelsea independent college, its statutes, but also explains why it came into such force during the eighteenth century. The Death penalty was supported by two very powerful factors. It was the last remnant of an old penal system [19] , which was slowly coming to an end. It had the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, power of an age-old tradition, something the nineteenth century Londoners did not want to lose. The second factor was public indignation. Although psychologists have labelled this indignation as a need for members of society to scapegoat others for their own violent impulses [20] , it can still not be overlooked as a factor prevalent in the debate over the abolition of capital punishment. The reformers were met with indignation at rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School the suggestion that a man should not be hanged for stealing to feed his starving family. It was believed that, should even one man be acquitted, the city would be overrun by write me essay american university washington property crime. [21] Until 1818, stealing goods worth five shillings from how to write an essay conclusion lucton school a shop involved the death sentence. Despite this however, by 1861, only four crimes remained capital: murder, piracy, treason, and arson in scientific article writing chelsea independent college Her Majesty’s dockyards [22] . The spirit of reform was in the air, and even turned up in unusual places. An excerpt from the end of 1849, in rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School London ’s Punch magazine reads: It may seem astonishing that there should exist, in this nineteenth century, such a folly as that instanced in rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School the following paragraph, extracted from write me essay american university washington the Boston [Lincolnshire, England] Herald:- “SUPERSTITION,-On Friday last a respectable looking female, afflicted with a wen in the neck, applied at Lincoln Castle, after the execution of WARD, for leave to write me essay american university washington, see the body, with a view of curing her disease; the request was very properly refused.” It may, however, be questioned whether a man hanged is not as likely to remove a wen as to how to write an essay conclusion lucton school, put an end to murder. The remedy has been long enough tried for the latter complaint, but without success. [23] Among the reformers who wished to put an end to the Bloody code were Bernard Mandeville and Henry Fielding. They argued that the executed became heroes in the opinion of the crowd. Mandeville wrote against the iniquities of Tyburn, „The day appointed by law for the thief’s shame is the day of glory in his own opinion“ [24] . rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School? In Gay’s The Beggars Opera , The Character of Polly Peachum also illustrates this: . methinks I see him already in the cart, sweeter and more lovely than the nosegay in his hand! – I hear the crowd extolling his resloution and intepidity! – What volleys of california a-g requirements tasis (the american school inswitzerland), sighs are sent from the windows of Holborn, that so comely a youth should be brought to disgrace! – I see him at the tree. The whole circle are in tears! – even butchers weep! – Jack Ketch himself hesitates to perform his duty, and would be glad to lose his fee, by a reprieve. [25] Although the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, glorification of the accused was a problem, the unruliness of the spectators did a lot to move the executions into a less public sphere, and from 1868 onward, after the passing of the Capital Punishment within Prisons Act , all executions were carried out behind prison walls, away from scientific article writing chelsea independent college the public eye [26] . The technique of write me essay american university washington, hanging was originally conceived of as an especially degrading means of death. The deterrent was meant to come from carrying out the executions in public. It was a means of strangulation. The convicted criminal could live for argumentative conclusion bromsgrove international school thailand several minutes dangling from the gallows, and his (or her) contortions were part of the deterrent, however it was hard to know whether the spectators identified with the victim, or the executioner. [27] The major lesson the gallows were meant to teach was the absolute authority of the law, but as the sentenced criminals were glorified, public execution had lost the power to frighten the spectators. [28] The growth of the press meant greater publicity for rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School executions, which probably led to write me essay american university washington, greater crowds attending them. The authorities had lost control of write me essay american university washington, the pillory and rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, were losing control of „The Hanging Tree“ [29] . rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School? As such, reformers jumped on this as an opportunity to outline the fact that capital punishment was no longer acting as a deterrent, and so, as the nineteenth century dawned, the Bloody Code slowly came to an end. One of the main arguments put forward by the abolitionists was the california a-g requirements tasis (the american school inswitzerland), fallability of human judgement. As the eighteenth century dawned into the nineteenth, juries became reulctant to convivt a criminal under the death penalty. Some claimed it outraged their sense of humanity and justice. Write me essay American University Washington? [30] This is not to suggest however that this did not lessen society’s condemnation of crimes. They felt just as strongly about the nature of crime as did their forebears, however contemporary Londoners felt a constant fear that even the most careful of criminal courts could discover that it took its decision without all the relevant facts. [31] It would seem that often, the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, changes instituted at how to write an essay conclusion lucton school this time, were due less from a desire to humanise punishment, than from a desire to protect the upper classes from the social upheaval of rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, the lower classes due to argumentative conclusion bromsgrove international school thailand, brutal and unequal punishment. Argumentative conclusion Bromsgrove International School Thailand? [32] The lack of convictions came not only from empathetic jurors however, but many of the victims did not prosecute to begin with, as they did not wish to be the cause of someone being executed. The reformers Sir Samuel Romilly, and Sir James Mackintosh used this as one of the principal reasons from bringing about the drastic reduction in the number of capital statutes in existence in the Bloody Code: ‚Numerous and respectable witnesses’ testified to the 1819 Select Committee on Criminal Laws ‚that a great reluctance prevail[ed] to prosecute’ in some capital crimes and, unfortunately, this reluctance had had the how to write an analysis of an article ardingly college, effect of producing immunity to such a degree, that it may be considered as among the temptations to the commision of crimes.’ [33] Not only were juries loathe convicting, as were the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, victims, however, some were reducing the value of stolen property so as to reduce the charge against how to write a convincing essay the windsor school the prisoner, and bring them out of range of capital punishment [34] . This forced prosecutors to think very seriously about the outcomes if they were to proceed with the statutes. All developing moral sensibilities aside, perhaps the rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, most influential reasons for the diminishing of the Bloody Code, was the fact that alternatives were developing. rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School? Incarceration was the emerging norm, and the 1820’s saw a stress on scientific article writing chelsea independent college restitution, rectitude and deterrence through this means. Writers in the 1830’s had faith that a depersonalised, but unvarying, system would somehow improve all people. [35] Many theorists regretted the lack of opportunity for remorse under capital punishment, especially those guilty of lesser crimes. rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School? [36] Life imprisonment was seen as sufficient retribution for more serious crimes. John Howard was a reformer who paved the way for rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School improvements in the prison system, which would not only deter, but give the offenders the opportunity to reflect on their evil ways and reform themselves. [37] Michael Foucault expressed a desire to establish a disciplined society in which punishment came through the institutions who exercised their power and new forms of how to write a convincing essay the windsor school, knowledge. He claimed that the punishment in use, which may engender feelings of revulsion, did not necessarily deter, and so, advised the development of prisons, asylums, barracks, factories and schools, which were all brought into fruition through forms of expert knowledge, such as medicine and psychiatry. [38] The end result of rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, prison reform was coercion, class domination and a technical means to power. Write me essay American University Washington? [39] While Sir William Meredith claimed that “none should be punished with death” and that if a man “who has privately picked a pocket of a handkerchief worth thirteen pence, is punished with the same severity, as if he had murdered a whole family of benefactors” it would only make him worse and more dangerous. [40] It was attested however, by William Eden, that prison sentences could also make offenders worse. Write me essay American University Washington? [41] This was combated by yet more reform, resulting in the structure exemplified by the Gloucester Penitentiary, in which solitary confinement was the focus. [42] With the creation of the new prison system, more accurate records were kept, and thus, the idea of a criminal record was introduced, which acted just as much as a deterrent as the death sentence ever had. [43] Therefore, the how to write an analysis of an article ardingly college, creation of an ordered prison system created not only a more humane alternative to the Capital Punishment, but also deterred, making it a valid counter to the statutes of the Bloody Code. The Bloody Code was originally made up of how to write an essay conclusion lucton school, statutes that stemmed as far back as the Tudors and the Stuarts. rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School? As society changed, and with it, the nature of crime, it became necessary to change the nature of punishment. With the emergence of new institutions, such as a preventative police force, there was a rise in successful convictions, which led to a rise in those punishable by death. The idea of killing so many people was simply humanitarianly impossible, and so, alternatives were developed to deal with this. rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School? With the development of the prison system, the argumentative conclusion bromsgrove international school thailand, focus shifted from retribution to how to write an essay conclusion lucton school, reform. rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School? After almost a century of how to write an analysis of an article ardingly college, debate, in rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School 1957, the how to write an essay conclusion lucton school, Homicide Act made the distinction between what crimes were, or were not punishable by how to write an analysis of an article ardingly college death [44] and finally, in how to write an essay conclusion lucton school 1965, after half a century of public education and how to write an analysis of an article ardingly college, persuasion, the death penalty was completely removed from scientific article writing chelsea independent college the British statute. [45] Engel, Howard. Lord Hight Executioner: An Unashamed Look at Hangmen, Headsmen, and Their Kind , Robson Books: Great Britain , 1996. Ed. Blom-Cooper. The Hanging Question: Essays on the Death Penalty , Gerald Duckworth and Co: London 1969. Ellis, Havelock. The Criminal. London, 1980. Linebaugh, Peter. The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century , Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 1992. Emsley, Clive. Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987. Gatrell, V.A.C. The Haning Tree . Oford University Press: Oxford, 1994. Ed. Palmegiano, E.M. Crime in Victorian Britain : An Annotated Bibliography from Nineteenth-Century British Magazines , Greenwood Press: Westport , United States of rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School, America , 1993. Eds. Kimber, Richard & Richardson, J.J. Pressure Groups in Britain : A Reader , Aldine House: London , 1974. Morgan, R. rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School? ‘Imprisonment: A Brief History, The Contemporary Scene, and Likely Prospects’ in rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, Oxford University Press: Oxford 2002. [1] Daiches, David. „A Primitive Saction“ in The Hanging Question: Essays on the Death Penalty ed. Blom-Cooper, Louis. rules of writing essay Moreton Hall School? Gerald Duckworth and Co: London 1969, 39. [2] Engel, Howard. Lord Hight Executioner: An Unashamed Look at Hangmen, Headsmen, and Their Kind , Robson Books: Great Britain , 1996, 24. [3] Engel, Howard . Lord Hight Executioner , 1996, 39. [4] Emsley, Clive. Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987, 92. [7] Lord Fortescue. How to write an analysis of an article Ardingly College? „Fortescue to Palmerston, 17 January 1853“ in Emsley, Clive. Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 , Longman Group UK Limited, 1987, 100. [8] Emsley, Clive. Crime and Society, 1987, 104. [9] Ellis, Havelock. The Criminal. London, 1980, 297.