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Government has failed to provide the access of basic human needs to the poor people living in meaning of critiquing washington academy, those areas States which have Naxalism movements are – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and article on books European University Cyprus, West Bengal The Naxalites are active in approximately 40 percent of India‚Äôs geographical area. They control large portions of article on books European University Cyprus remote and densely forested areas and are concentrated in an area called ‚ÄúRed Corridor‚ÄĚ. This area is also the tribal belt where the writing a scholarly article taunton school, tension between economic development and aboriginal land rights is most apparent. Though all Naxal groups are bound by a common ideology they tend to act and react in different ways and affect a diverse kind of population which lead to varied opinions. On July 5, 2011, the Supreme Court of India declared the militia as illegal and unconstitutional. Naxals believe that power flows from the barrel of a gun, and their aim is to create a classless society. Brief History of Naxalism in India: The term Naxalism was first coined in 1967. Communist party- ideology-1925 Communist party of India under the influence of Mao tsetung. In 1948, a peasant movement took place in Telangana These ideological differences led to the split of the party in 1964, and the Communist Party of India (Marxist) also known as CPM was formed. In 1967, CPM participated in elections and formed a coalition United Front government in West Bengal with Bangla Congress. Comrade Charu Majumdar launched the Naxalbari uprising against the local landlord. Birth and meaning of critiquing washington academy, Growth of Naxalism: On May 25th 1967 a section of Communist Party (Marxist)(CPM) cadres rose in revolt against the oppression of peasants in Naxalbari. They were led by CPM leaders Charu Mazumdar and scholarship essay writing service bromsgrove international school thailand, Kanu Sanyal. CPM which advocated parliamentary politics did not support the rebellion. Rebels who were then known as Naxalites broke away from CPM and formed Naxalites movement. Naxalite movement based itself on the principles of writing a scholarly article taunton school Mao (Late leader of Chinese communist Party) and Che Guevara. article on books European University Cyprus. Rebellion also benefited from the ongoing drought in India which affected peasants. By 1972 the article on books European University Cyprus, movement was literally dead, due to writing a scholarly article taunton school efforts by the Indira Gandhi Government which used Patriotic sentiment to win over support of the general public. In early 1980s, a Naxalite group in Andhra Pradesh state started operations against state police in adivasi areas. Slowly operations extended into the article on books European University Cyprus, neighboring states such as Madhya Pradesh. At the same time another Naxalite group carried out operation against state police in Bihar state. Two groups later joined together to writing essays for scholarships st. georgeís school form the Communist Party. For the past 10 years, it has grown mostly from displaced tribals and natives who are fighting against meaning of critiquing washington academy exploitation from major Indian corporations and local corrupt officials. The Chinese government has been found to have provided sanctuary to leaders of the article on books European University Cyprus, movement, and writing a scholarly article taunton school, the Pakistani ISI to have provided financial support. Writing a scholarly article Taunton School. The members of the Naxal movement initially try to infiltrate and develop their bases in underdeveloped areas where there exist some sort of an administrative vacuum. While taking advantage of the feeling of neglect among the people, the Naxalites start educating them about their exploitation by the Indian state and how to bring an end to such exploitation through an armed struggle. Truth to be told, there has been a gross misunderstanding between both the parties. The State has failed to take into how to review an article saint anthonyís high school account the aspirations and rights of tribals. Their needs, their livelihood, are also important if we wish to march forward towards a sustainable model of development. A fully armed solution is not the way out, and the recent changes in policies like the IAP have been steps in the right direction. How to write an informative essay Sidcot School. While gaining the article on books European University Cyprus, trust of all the involved parties is imperative, it is essential that the scholarship essay writing service bromsgrove international school thailand, State does not come across as being soft on law-breakers. Causes of the Threat: The causes of the Maoist movement in India are Economic, political and cultural dimensions which are closely linked. The first is the economic situation which is exploited by Naxalites and their extreme left ideology. On the one hand, India has experienced relatively fast economic growth, which has led to increased levels of national wealth. To facilitate and continue this development, businesses need more land and natural resources such as minerals. On the other hand, this economic growth has been uneven among regions, and has widened the disparity between the rich and the poor. Proponents of these businesses argue that these regions need economic development, if they are to catch up with their richer counterparts. The Indian aboriginals, known as adivasis, live these richly forested lands, which are wanted for development by businesses. The conflict between economic progress and aboriginal land rights continues to assignment writing university of southampton fuel the Naxalite‚Äôs activities. How to write an informative essay Sidcot School. Their strongest bases are in the poorest areas of India. They are concentrated on the tribal belt such as West Bengal, Orissa, and Andhra Pradesh where locals experience forced acquisition of their land for developmental projects. Businesses are making adivasis go through ‚Äúsham formal consultation‚ÄĚ processes where interests of the adivasis are not sincerely considered. Second, the writing essays for scholarships st. georgeís school, alienation that is being exploited by the Maoists has a social, communal and regional dimension. The battle can also be described between India‚Äôs most neglected people and the nation‚Äôs most powerful industrial businesses. The adivasis make up about 8. How to write an informative essay Sidcot School. 4 percent of the population and live in severe poverty. They live in article on books European University Cyprus, remote areas where government administration is weak and there is a lack of government services. These indigenous people have the lowest literacy rates in the country and highest rates of article on books European University Cyprus infant mortality. Given this socio-economic alienation, it is easy to see how the Naxalite‚Äôs ideology is popular among the rural poor and indigenous tribes, and why the adivasis view the guerrillas as their ‚Äúsaviours‚ÄĚ. The adivasis do not feel like they have any political power to article on books European University Cyprus voice their grievances legitimately, and scholarship essay writing service bromsgrove international school thailand, therefore the alternative of subversive, illegal groups seem attractive. Impact on scholarship essay writing service bromsgrove international school thailand, Economic Development: The major macroeconomic effects of the article on books European University Cyprus, Naxal movement are :- Reduction in per capita GDP growth. Higher inflation rates Lower tax revenues Lower domestic investment and higher expenditure on defense at the cost of lower expenditure on education and health Lower exports, reduced bilateral trade flows and reduced foreign direct investment inflows Micro-economic effects include lower tourist inflows, lower regional tourism market share, reduced usage of public transport, reduced long term investments in agriculture and other potential sectors, reduced enrollment in article on books European University Cyprus, schools, lower job availability and lack of substantial opportunities. Postive Social & Political Impact: Naxalite movement has sustained for nearly 45 years because the Naxalites have received unwavering support from the lower caste villagers and article on books European University Cyprus, adivasis who were time and writing essays for scholarships st. georgeís school, again crushed by the higher caste zamindars or governance authorities before the Naxal surge. A plethora of reasons contribute towards their sustained support:- Forest (Conservation) Act 1980 placed the article on books European University Cyprus, reserved forests of the entire country in the article on books European University Cyprus, hands of the Centre. No portion of these reserves could be utilized without the prior permission of the government. This rule led to the eviction of many adivasis from the forests and their frequent abuse by the hands of forest officers. The Naxalites stepped into such disputes and provided protection to scholarship essay writing service bromsgrove international school thailand these adivasis from the forest officers as well as eviction from their habitat. article on books European University Cyprus. The law and writing essays for scholarships st. georgeís school, administration provides no succor to displaced people and treats them with hostility since such internally displaced forest dwellers tend to settle down again in some forest region which is prohibited. The Naxalite movement has come to the aid of writing a scholarly article taunton school such victims. The reason for displacement of people normally is extremes of meaning of critiquing washington academy poverty and social oppression, due to some irrigation or power plant projects and poor evicted from government lands. article on books European University Cyprus. One such example was the displacement of adivasis by irrigation projects in Orissa who migrated to the forests of Andhra Pradesh. Without Naxal intervention these adivasis would have been evicted by forest officials from there as well. The Minimum Wages Act remains an meaning of critiquing washington academy act on paper for writing essays for scholarships st. georgeís school most of the rural India. It is reported that the meaning of critiquing washington academy, Naxalites have ensured payment of article on books European University Cyprus decent wages to the labourers. In the matter of physical infrastructure like roads, school buildings, etc. , the Naxalite movement has on certain occasions exerted pressure for its improvement but in article on books European University Cyprus, certain locations and assignment writing university of southampton, various occasions they have obstructed the laying of roads, rail lines and construction activites for the fear of police and paramilitary raids. The slogan of the Naxalites from the beginning has been ‚Äėland to the tillers‚Äô. They nearly brought an end to the article on books European University Cyprus, absentee landlordism system although this activity is still prevalent in some places. The land seized from the rich landlords was given in the hands of the peasants who cultivated that land. From the looks of it, it seems that the meaning of critiquing washington academy, Naxalite movement attempted to achieve equity in the society by means of class struggle and they did achieve it to some extent but at the cost of the economic development of the article on books European University Cyprus, state. Negative Impacts of the Naxal Movement and Security Forces: Naxalites have always attempted to disrupt elections thereby not only preventing masses from choosing their leaders but also inhibiting them from exercising their fundamental right to vote. The Maoist extortion business is estimated to be around a whopping 2000 crore rupees. All contractors have to article on books European University Cyprus pay 5-10% of the project cost to Naxalites as ‚Äėprotection money‚Äô Salwa Judum which was a militia set up with the how to review an article saint anthonyís high school, approval of the government to counter the Naxals caused the displacement of 43,740 people as of 31, December 2006 from article on books European University Cyprus Chattisgarh. Security forces have also been alleged of recruiting minors as SPO‚Äôs (Special Police Officers) in the Salwa Judum. Salwa Judum has been alleged of article on books European University Cyprus practicing vigilante justice and their activist have been held responsible for heinous crimes like torture, rape and how to review an article saint anthonyís high school, non-judicial executions. Often villages and adivasis are caught in the cross firing between the security forces and the Naxals causing loss of life and property. NAXALISM & ITS EFFECTS ON BUSINESS The Naxalites may pose a graver threat to India’s economic power, potentially more damaging to Indian companies, foreign investors and the state than pollution, crumbling infrastructure or political gridlock. The growing Maoist insurgency over large swathes of the mineral-rich countryside could soon hurt some industrial investment plans. Just when India needs to ramp up its industrial machine to lock in growth and when foreign companies are joining the party — Naxalites are clashing with mining and steel companies essential to India’s long-term success. The other reason for sounding the alarm stems from the increasingly close proximity between the scholarship essay writing service bromsgrove international school thailand, corporate world and the forest domain of the Naxalites. There is article on books European University Cyprus a growing concern over the widening reach of Naxalites as they operated in 30% of India, up from how to write an informative essay sidcot school 9% in 2002. The terror groups have already begun operating and attacking industries on the edge of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh. Naxalites are now planning to penetrate India’s major cities, and article on books European University Cyprus, are looking to encircle urban centres, find sympathy among students and the unemployed and create armed, secret, self-defence squads that will execute orders. Investments Hurdled by Naxalism: Attacks by Maoist rebels on mining and other commercial activities in Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa have cast an ominous shadow on investment plans by private players in these states. The attacks on mining and related activities could cost Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand dear as both the states have bountiful mineral resources that can boost their economy and generate employment opportunities Many of the potential investment destinations, particularly for the extractive industry and scholarship essay writing service bromsgrove international school thailand, core infrastructure sectors are situated in Naxalite-affected areas, making it unviable for commercial operations. These States are on the verge of development, which can be attributed to the rich mineral resources, changing regional politics and the boom of the Indian economy. Unfortunately, the article on books European University Cyprus, ongoing Naxalite activities are acting as major impediments to the overall growth of these least developed States Solutions: The complexity of the causes of the Naxalite problem as well as its implications both for internal and external security reflect a solution that is multi-dimensional and calls for a synergy between the central governments and the states. In order to comprehensively dissolve the Naxalite threat, the government has to writing essays for scholarships st. georgeís school address its root causes. Socio-economic alienation and the dissatisfaction with the widening economic and political inequality will not be solved by article on books European University Cyprus, military force alone, which seems to be the main instrument employed by the writing a scholarly article taunton school, government. The problem calls for a three-pronged solution: social and economic development, multi-lateral dialogue and military force. Socio-economic development As the Naxalites are fuelled by discontent from the marginalized and the poor, a larger percentage of the national budget must be allocated to addressing the needs of these regions. More of the national expenditure needs to be focused on developing these poorer regions through initiatives regarding health, education, social welfare and rural and urban development. Government service delivery should be improved in these tribal areas. Both state and government must ensure that things such as statutory minimum wages, access to article on books European University Cyprus land and water sources initiatives are implemented. In coming up with strategies for national economic growth, the government must always bear in mind the possible effects of scholarship essay writing service bromsgrove international school thailand fast growth for all socio-economic groups in a country as large and diverse as India. If the writing a scholarly article taunton school, social needs of these marginalized people are addressed, there will be no discontent to assignment writing university of southampton fuel the Naxalite‚Äôs movements. Dialogue Second, the government should initiate sincere dialogue with these marginalised groups, the Naxalites and state leaders. The popularity of Naxalites with the adivasis is a reflection of the fact that the government has been unaware or ‚Äúunapologetically indifferent to their plight‚ÄĚ. By communicating and starting a dialogue between these stakeholders, these groups will feel that they being listened to. By opening dialogue, the government can give opportunity for the how to review an article saint anthonyís high school, rebels to join the mainstream by showing them that solutions can be created together with the government, by being part of the political system in a legitimate way. They no longer need to resort to violence to article on books European University Cyprus get the how to write an informative essay sidcot school, state‚Äôs attention. article on books European University Cyprus. For example, the former director-general of AP concluded that as a result of the ceasefire and dialogue with Maoists in 2004, the violence in the state decreased by 80-90 percent in the region. Military Currently, the main instrument employed by the government to address the article on books European University Cyprus, Naxalite threat is the increasing use of the military. While some military force is still needed to combat against the Maoist guerrillas, it should not be the only solution. By only addressing the issue by brute force, government risks alienating civilians who are caught in the middle. Coercion of the state will only article on books European University Cyprus, encourage people to assignment writing university of southampton rally against it. Governance: The growing Naxalite insurgency also reflects a flaw in the article on books European University Cyprus, federal structure. Because law and article on books European University Cyprus, order is how to write an informative essay sidcot school seen as a state responsibility, the central government is unable to be implementing a coherent national strategy to address the threat. The government has the overall responsibility of mobilizing development, but it cannot do so without the support of the states. The central government and the states need to cooperate together to article on books European University Cyprus solve the writing essays for scholarships st. georgeís school, internal security threats and coordinate the writing a scholarly article taunton school, implementation of this multi-dimensional approach. Both organizations must complement and support each other‚Äôs initiatives and scholarship essay writing service bromsgrove international school thailand, strategies. Government Policies: Naxalism 2009-Operation Green Hunt Initiated with the blessings of Home minister P. Chidambaram with the objective of cleansing naxalism from the Indian main land. The central government has recently decided to allocate meager Rs. 2 crore per year to per Naxal-affected district to develop the socio-economic situation. This is more a social and political problem than a law and order problem The Home minister made it clear that no talks will be held until the ultras abjure violence The government has also initiated publicity campaigns in order to assignment writing university of southampton garner support from the general public in their efforts to crack down on the naxals New Initiative in Jharkhand (Sep 2013): State police is assignment writing university of southampton planning to modify its existing Naxalite surrender policy for rebels in the bid to convince them to put down arms and lead a normal life. The surrender policy promised Rs. 2. 5 lakh in how to write an informative essay sidcot school, three installments, a monthly compensation of Rs 3000 with employment training, four decimal government land with Rs 50,000 cash to how to write an informative essay sidcot school construct a house, free life long medical facility, free education up-to class X, incentive for marriage of daughters, among several other promises. article on books European University Cyprus. Conclusion: To conclude, the Naxalite problem reflects underlying issues in the Indian social, economic and political institutions which threaten to article on books European University Cyprus expose India to even more danger from outside forces. Writing essays for scholarships St. Georgeís School. While the Naxalite movement is mainly an internal threat, with globalisation, external and internal security threats are inextricably linked. article on books European University Cyprus. The complex and multi-faceted approach to article on books European University Cyprus solving the Naxalite issue also reflects the fact that this is the biggest menace to India‚Äôs security in the future. The only article on books European University Cyprus, possible way for writing essays for scholarships st. georgeís school any progressive activity to take place in these areas is article on books European University Cyprus by peaceful negotiations and ceasefire. In conclusion, let us take a look beyond the hullabaloo into the core reason behind it all. Capitalism and communism are two sides of the how to write an informative essay sidcot school, same coin. Enough blood has been shed over that piece of metal junk and humanity is yet to learn the lesson. We don‚Äôt own the coin. We are merely ephemeral entities who have been given a chance to add value to how to review an article saint anthonyís high school society. No one has given anyone the right to destroy what has never been anybody‚Äôs. Once we internalize this fact, there will be no dispute.