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www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy

Occupations: nationalsit, national hero, religious organization. Omar al-Mukhtar (ca. How to write an introduction to an essay West Buckland School. 1860-1931), national hero of Libya and member of the Senusy, a religious organization with administrative and military functions, led the anticolonial resistance in Cirenaica from 1923 to 1931, when he was captured by the Italians and condemned to www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy, death. Little is known of Omar al-Mukhtar until the last decade of his life when he became the undisputed leader of the Senusist resistance in Cirenaica. Even his date of birth is uncertain, somewhere between 1856 and 1862, in el Batwan in oriental Cirenaica. For eight years he studied in the koran school of Giarabub, the Senusy's holy city. He taught in a Senusist zawiya but also took part in military operations against the writing introduction for essay oswestry school, Italians and the allies during World War I. When the Italians openly attacked Senusy in the spring of 1923 (at the www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy, end of April the www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy, existing agreements were formally denounced) Omar was among the most competent and active figures in organizing and coordinating the how to write a paragraph essay kingswood school, resistance. In his capacity as representative of the music for essay writing anglia ruskin university (navitas), Senusy he had assumed command of the guerrilla forces that often baffled and confounded the regular Italian forces. In the how to write a paragraph essay kingswood school, mountainous region of Gebel Akhdar (the Green Mountain) Italian Governor Mombelli succeeded in 1924 in activating a counter-guerrilla force that inflicted a harsh defeat on the how to write an introduction to an essay west buckland school, rebels in www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy, April 1925. Omar then quickly modified his own tactics and was able to count on www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy, constant help from Egypt. In March 1927, notwithstanding the occupation of Giarabub (February 1926) and the reenforcement of the oppression under then Governor Teruzzi, Omar surprised an Italian military force at Raheiba. Following successive clashes in various localities of Gebel, Omar was forced to withdraw. Between 1927 and 1928 Omar fully reorganized the Senusite forces, who were being hunted constantly by the Italians. Even General Teruzzi recognized Omar's qualities of "exceptional perseverance and strong will power." Pietro Badoglio, the new governor of Libya (January 1929), after extensive negotiations was able to reach a compromise with Omar similar to previous Italo-Senusite accords. Italian sources falsely described the situation as an act of complete submission by Omar. This attitude was confirmed by Italian leaders, including Badoglio (who probably supported the misleading statement hoping to break anti-Italian resistance). At the end of writing introduction for essay oswestry school October 1929 Omar denounced the www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy, compromise and reestablished a unity of action among Libyan forces, preparing himself for the ultimate confrontation with General Rodolfo Graziani, the military commander from March 1930. Having failed in a massive offensive in June against Omar's forces, Graziani, in www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy, full accord with Badoglio, De Bono (minister of the colonies), and Benito Mussolini, initiated a strong plan to process of essay writing sherborne international, decisively break off the Cirenaica resistance. The plan was to transfer the Gebel population (around 100,000 persons) to www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy, concentration camps on the how to write a paragraph essay kingswood school, coast and to close the process of essay writing sherborne international, border with Egypt from the coast at Giarabub, thus preventing any foreign help to the fighters and breaking up the solidarity of the population. From the beginning of 1931 the measures taken by Graziani took their toll on the Senusist resistance. The rebels were deprived of help and reinforcements, spied upon, hit by Italian aircraft, and pursued by the Italian forces aided by local informers. In spite of hardships and increasing risks, Omar courageously continued the fight, but on September 11, 1931, he was ambushed near Zonta. Writing introduction for essay Oswestry School. With dignity and www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy, calm he faced up to the immediate situation and accepted his death sentence with the words: "From God we came and to God we must return." The execution of the paid to write articles st. clair college, old fighter--carried out in the concentration camp of Solluq on September 16--caused great indignation in the www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy, Arab world. Omar's implacable adversary, General Graziani, has given us this physical and moral description, which is not lacking in admiration: "Of medium height, stout, with white hair, beard and moustache. Omar was endowed with a quick and lively intelligence; was knowledgeable in religious matters, and revealed an energetic and www.hbsp.harvard.edu Idyllwild Arts Academy, impetuous character, unselfish and how to write a paragraph essay kingswood school, uncompromising; ultimately, he remained very religious and poor, even though he had been one of the most important Senusist figures." In later times author A. Del Boca judged him: "Omar is not only an example of religious faith and a born fighter but also the builder of that perfect military-political organization, which for ten years kept in check troops under four governors." The memory of Omar remained alive. Libya, independent, monarchic, and revolutionary, declared him its national hero. His life was depicted by Anthony Quinn in the movie "The Lion of the Desert," produced by Siro-American Akkad.