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steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts

A typical tenement building was from five to six stories high, with four apartments on each floor. To maximize the number of renters, builders wasted little space. Early tenements might occupy as much as 90 percent of their lots, leaving little room behind the building for privies and water pumps and little ventilation, light, or privacy inside the tenement. With a large extended family and thesis argumentative essay glenalmond college regular boarders to help pay the rent, which could otherwise eat up over half of a family's income, a tenement apartment might house as many as from ten to twelve people at a time. These tenement residents often also worked in the building in tips of writing an essay coventry university, such occupations as cigar rolling and garment making. From the free online essay writing test leighton park school beginning, reformers attacked tenement conditions. In New York City, early attempts at reform included fire-prevention measures, the creation of a Department of Survey and Inspection of Buildings in 1862, and the founding of the Metropolitan Board of Health in 1866. steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts. Meanwhile, city tenements were getting increasingly. crowded: by 1864, approximately 480,400 of New York City's more than 700,000 residents lived in some 15,300 tenement buildings. New York State passed a Tenement House Law on 14 May 1867, the how to write a good 5 paragraph essay skoda auto university nation's first comprehensive housing reform law. It established the first standards for minimum room size, ventilation, and sanitation. It required fire escapes and at least one toilet or privy (usually outside) for every twenty inhabitants. However, enforcement was lax. An 1879 amendment to the steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts 1867 legislation required more open space on a building lot and stipulated that all tenement rooms open onto a street, rear yard, or air shaft. The measure was designed to increase ventilation and steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts fight diseases, such as tuberculosis, that ravaged tenement neighborhoods. To meet the steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts standards of the 1879 law, builders designed the "dumbbell tenement" with narrow airshafts on each side to create a dumbbell-like shape from above. Despite slightly better fireproofing and personal essay writing prompts hotel institute montreux ventilation, reformers attacked these buildings as only a limited improvement on existing conditions. In 1890, Jacob Riis's How the Other Half Lives rallied middle-class reformers to the cause of improving tenement life. His photos and steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts essays drew attention to the health and housing problems of tips of writing an essay coventry university, tenement neighborhoods. The most significant New York State law to improve deteriorating tenement conditions was the Tenement Act of 1901, promoted by thesis argumentative essay glenalmond college a design competition and exhibition held by personal essay writing prompts hotel institute montreux the Charity Organization Society in 1900. By that time, the city's Lower East Side was home to the most densely populated buildings on steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts, earth. The neighborhood's Tenth Ward had a population of steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts, 69,944, approximately 665 people per acre. The 1901 legislation, opposed by steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts the real estate industry on the grounds that it would discourage new construction, improved tenement buildings. The law mandated better lighting and fireproofing. Most important, it required that privies be replaced with indoor toilet facilities connected to the personal essay writing prompts hotel institute montreux city sewers, with one toilet for steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts every two apartments. Beginning in the New Deal era, reformers' strategies changed. Drawing on a tradition of "model tenements" and new government interest in housing construction, reformers designed public housing projects. How to write a good 5 paragraph essay SKODA AUTO University. Their plans emphasized open space, much as an earlier generation had passed laws to provide more light and fresh air for urban working-class families. The imposed standards, however, often created new problems. Building closures and slum clearance displaced many working-class families, while new high-rise public housing often fell victim to free online essay writing test leighton park school, segregation and neglect. Although reformers continued to attack working-class living conditions, social pressures sustained many of the problems of steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts, poverty and overcrowding. Bauman, John F., Roger Biles, and Kristin M. Szylvian. From Tenements to the Taylor Homes: In Search of an Urban Housing Policy in Twentieth-Century America. steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000. Day, Jared N. Urban Castles: Tenement Housing and Landlord Activism in free online essay writing test leighton park school, New York City, 1890–1943. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. Ford, James. Slums and Housing, with Special Reference to New York City: History, Conditions, Policy. steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936. Hall, Peter. Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century. New York: Blackwell, 1988. Lower East Side Tenement Museum. Home page at http://www.tenement.org. Plunz, Richard. A History of Housing in New York City. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990. Riis, Jacob. How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York. New York: Scribners, 1890. Pick a style below, and steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts copy the text for steps in writing a good essay Norwich University of The Arts your bibliography.