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argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO)

The ability to critically evaluate information is an essential skill for postgraduate researchers. This skill is particularly pertinent to the production of literature reviews, where a critical appraisal or analysis of the literature is writing a newsletter article leman manhattan preparatory school required. In this section, we suggest using 'PROMPT', a structured approach to critical evaluation of information (Provenance, Relevance, Objectivity, Method, Presentation, Timeliness). The provenance of a piece of information (i.e. who produced it? Where did it come from?) may provide a useful clue to its reliability. It represents the ‘credentials’ of argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), a piece of information that support its status and perceived value. It is, therefore, very important to argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), be able to identify the author, sponsoring body or source of your information. Are they acknowledged experts in the argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), subject area? Are they respected and reliable sources Are their views controversial? Have they been frequently cited by argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO) other authors in the field To find out argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO) whether material has been frequently cited requires either prior knowledge or a citation search. Are they known to have a particular perspective on the topic? What type of organisation is it? Commercial company, voluntary organisation, statutory body, research organisation? How well established is the organisation? Does the organisation have any vested interests in the subject area being researched? Any individual can publish anything on the world wide web or post to argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), a discussion list. This has to be judged on its own merit and with reference to the author’s credentials. What do you know of the editor and/or the editorial board and how their editorial policy influences what will be published? Is the journal well regarded? Does it have a high rating in the Journal Citation Reports? Does this matter? Is the information peer reviewed? Many electronic journals do not have a peer review process. The provenance of a piece of information is not a direct clue to its quality. There is something called the ‘stable theory’, which suggests that academic work is often valued highly just because it emanates from a prestigious research group or is published in a prestigious journal. So we should judge information on its own merits. However, provenance can be an indirect clue to the reliability of information - a safety net that gives you the opportunity to check things out. Provenance can affect other people’s confidence in the sources you are citing. Relevance is an important aspect of information quality. It is not a property of the information itself, but rather of its relationship to the need you have identified. It may be a piece of argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), high quality information but not relevant to the question you are asking or the scope of your search. There are a number of ways in which the information may or may not be relevant to your needs. Geographical (it may relate to countries or areas which you are not interested in). Level (it may be too detailed/specialised or too general/simple for the level at which you are working). Emphasis (it may not contain the kind of information you are seeking - this is argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO) often a question of writing a conclusion paragraph for essay lucton school, emphasis, which may not be identifiable from the abstract). be clear about your requirements - this will help you to argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), be ruthless in peer reviewed journals institut montana zugerberg, discarding things on the basis of relevance. try to avoid having to read things in full - look at the title, abstract or summary, keywords and how to write a journal for college rosseau lake college, descriptors. If you are evaluating a large body of material, learn to skim read and/or scan information to get a quick indication of what it is about. For more details on reading techniques see the Effective reading site from Deakin University. consider research in context. Do the writing a biographical essay wittenborg university of applied sciences, research results provide a unique insight into argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO) an aspect of your subject? Do they confirm or refute the findings of writing a newsletter article leman manhattan preparatory school, other researchers? In an ideal world, ‘objective’ or ‘balanced’ information would present all the evidence and all the arguments, and leave you to weigh this up and draw conclusions. In the real world, however, we recognise that all information is presented from a position of interest, although this may not necessarily be intentional. Objectivity, therefore, may be an writing expository essays adelphi university, unachievable ideal. This means that the onus is on you, the reader, to as english coursework george brown college, develop a critical awareness of the positions represented in what you read, and to take account of writing expository essays adelphi university, this when you interpret the information. It is also important to recognise that your own belief systems and opinions will influence your ability to be dispassionate and objectively evaluate information. In some cases, authors may be explicitly expressing a particular viewpoint - this is writing a conclusion paragraph for essay lucton school perfectly valid as long as they are explicit about the perspective they represent. Hidden bias or errors of omission, whether or not it is deliberate, can be misleading. Consider the writing a conclusion paragraph for essay lucton school, following: Perspectives: do the authors state clearly the viewpoint they are taking? Opinions: academic articles will often present unsubstantiated theories for argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), debate. Look out for argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), opinion presented as if it were fact. Writing a conclusion paragraph for essay Lucton School! Language: can be a useful danger sign. argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO)! Look out for language that is argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO) either emotionally charged or vague. Sponsorship: whether commercial, political or personal. For example, academic research may be sponsored by industry or government. This does not necessarily make the research less objective but it may make its interpretation selective. argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO)! Make sure that all potential vested interests are clearly identified and that the sponsors are happy to give access to the actual research data. When producing a literature review there is a particular onus on you to recognise any selective interpretation of data. You will need to comment on any significant omissions or biases that you may encounter in other people’s findings. For this aspect of PROMPT we do not refer to the evaluation of as english coursework george brown college, research methods per argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), se, but to the information produced as a result of argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), using particular methods. As english coursework George Brown College! With your knowledge of the argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), methods used in writing expository essays adelphi university, your subject area think about the following. Is it clear how the research was carried out? Were the methods appropriate? Ask some basic questions about sample size and nature, use of control groups, questionnaire design. Are the results produced consistent with the methods stated? Are the methods suitable for your needs? Do you need the methods to be the same as yours or different to argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), yours? Do not assume that because a research report has been accepted for publication, it is error-free and writing a biographical essay wittenborg university of applied sciences, meets a certain standard. There have been cases of fraudulent research that have successfully fooled the research establishment and been published in high profile journals. The way in which information is argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO) presented has a profound effect on writing a conclusion paragraph for essay lucton school the way we receive and perceive it. As english coursework George Brown College! There are many aspects of presentation, any of which, if badly applied, can create a barrier between the message and the audience. choice of colour choice of font type and size use of diagrams and images lack of or illogical structure confusing layout poor use of argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), language inappropriate or ineffectual writing style poor reproduction. Be aware that poor presentation and inappropriate or confusing use of language will hinder your ability to critically evaluate the academic content. Writing expository essays Adelphi University! Try not to let poor presentation stop you from writing a biographical essay wittenborg university of applied sciences using what might otherwise be good quality, relevant information. The date when information was produced or published can be an important aspect of quality. argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO)! This is not quite as simple as saying that ‘good’ information has to be up to writing a biographical essay wittenborg university of applied sciences, date; it depends on your information need. Factors to consider include: Is it clear when the argumentative persuasive essay University of East Anglia (INTO), information was produced? Does the writing expository essays adelphi university, date of the information meet my requirements? Is it obsolete? (Has it been superseded?)